Groliers Encyclopedia

CD

1994~

Book ID 324

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M. Fagan

Archaeological investigations at Engaruka took place from 1964 to . . .

Archaeological investigations at Engaruka took place from 1964 to 1966.

Extract ID: 1288

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M. Fagan

Engaruka, an Iron Age site in East Africa

Engaruka, an Iron Age site in East Africa, lies between Lakes Natron and Manyara in northern Tanzania. A perennial stream was the focus of the settlement. The hillsides on both banks were terraced with stone walling to from those of other early farming settlements in East Africa. The site may have been associated with southern Cushites who preceded peoples related to the Nilotes in the area.make platforms for houses and irrigated terraces for gardens. Paths and irrigation channels lead outward to about 500 dwellings ranged along the hillsides. Field systems with stone boundaries extend across an area of about 13 sq km (about 5 sq mi) on the valley floor. Circular stone cattle enclosures also dot the valley. Radiocarbon-dating has placed Engaruka between the 4th and 15th centuries AD. The site remains somewhat of a puzzle, for its pottery traditions differ

Extract ID: 1287

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M. Fagan

Fibres obtained from a plant or an animal are classed

Fibres obtained from a plant or an animal are classed as natural fibres. The majority of these fibres are used in weaving textiles, although the coarser plant fibres are also used for rope and twine. Plant fibres come either from the seed hairs, leaves, stems (bast fibres), or husks of the plant. Animal fibres are provided, generally, by animal hair and, in the case of silk, by the secretion of the silkworm.

... Fibres taken from the plant leaf are called 'hard', or cordage, fibres because they are used principally to make rope. The most important leaf fibres are those from the Sisal, or agave, plant grown in Brazil and Africa, and a Mexican agave that produces a fibre called henequen. Both Sisal and henequen fibres are stiff, strong, and rough textured.

Extract ID: 1360

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M.Fagan

Laetolil

from 'Laetolil' by Brian M.Fagan in Grolier's

Laetoli, formerly Laetolil, is an archaeological site located 40 km (25 mi) south of Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. Discovered by Louis and Mary Leakey in 1935, the site consists of numerous layers of volcanic ash in which fossil animal bones and hominid remains were found. In 1975 Mary Leakey explored the site more completely. Potassium argon dating was used to assign an age of about 3.75 million years to the fragmentary jaws and crania found at the site. These remains are nearly a million years older than the hominid fossils found by Richard Leakey in the East Turkana area of Kenya. Initially these remains were thought to be of the genus Homo, but they have since been classified as Australopithecus afarensis. Experts hypothesise that this species is the common ancestor of all later hominid species in the genera Homa and Australopithecus.

Extract ID: 1422

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M.Fagan

Mary Leakey born

[Leakey, Mary] Born

Extract ID: 505

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M. Fagan

Olduvai Gorge

Olduvai Gorge, an archaeological site on the Serengeti Plains in northern Tanzania, provides unique evidence for early human evolution and toolmaking from about 2 million to 100,000 years ago. Olduvai was discovered by Wilhelm Kattwinkel, a German entomologist, in 1911. German palaeontologist Hans Reck investigated the gorge after World War I and found the remains of hundreds of extinct Pleistocene mammals but no traces of human tools or primate fossils. The British archaeologist Louis Leakey followed up Reck's work in 1931 and almost immediately found stone tools in the gorge. Leakey, with his wife, Mary, worked at the site intermittently until his death (1972); Mary has continued investigation there.

After years of research the Leakeys began to find prehuman fossils in the gorge. In 1959, Mary Leakey found a skull of Australopithecus boisei, a primitive hominid (humanlike) fossil species, that was later potassium-argon dated to about 1.75 million years before the present. Later a more gracile hominid, called Homo Habilis, was discovered in a level slightly lower than that of the original hominid find. The Homo habilis fragments were said to belong to a larger-brained hominid than Australopithecus and included parts of a hand. A reconstruction of the hand bones revealed an opposable thumb capable of powerful gripping and precise manipulation.

The 1.8-million-year-old skeletal remains of another H. habilis specimen were discovered at Olduvai Gorge in 1986.

The earliest occupation levels at Olduvai date from about 2 million years ago and contain crude Oldowan stone chopping tools with jagged edges as well as the bones of many extinct animals.

Additional hominid fossils have come to light in the lower and the upper (later) levels of Olduvai, including a skull of Homo Erectus dating from about one million years ago. By this time the inhabitants of the Olduvai camps were making more sophisticated stone artefacts of Acheulean type, including carefully shaped stone hand axes that served as more effective multipurpose implements than chopping tools.

Laetoli

Extract ID: 1421

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~

The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro

The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro, the legendary burial place of King Solomon, were two German missionaries, Johannes Rebmann and Ludwig Krapf, in 1848. Their tales of a snow-covered peak near the equator, however, were not initially believed. Later two other Germans were the first to reach (1889) the Kibo summit.

Extract ID: 393

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Phoebe Miller

The Maasai

The Maasai are a nomadic cattle-herding people of East Africa who, in the face of change, have with determination clung to their traditional ways, rejecting the cash economy and refusing to settle or become farmers. One of the tall, slender, Nilotic peoples, the Maasai are East African in physical type. They speak an Eastern Chari-Nile language of the Sudanic stock.

Traditionally, the Maasai ranged widely over the Kenya highlands in raiding expeditions, but after suffering famine and disease they were persuaded by the Kenya government to move to southern Kenya and Tanzania. They were estimated to number close to 300,000 in the late 1960s.

Cattle are the basis of the Maasai economy, providing food, mainly in the form of milk and blood, and property for payment of bride-price. Maasai also keep many sheep, and some goats and donkeys.

Social features include descent through the father's line and multiple wives. Traditionally, Maasai males have been age-graded in the stages of boy, warrior, and elder. A man may marry only after he has served as a warrior, at about age 30. Maasai residence groups are divided into elders' and warriors' Kraals, or villages. Married men, their families, and the livestock live in elders' kraals. Warriors, some of their mothers, and some sisters, who are the warriors' lovers, live in warriors' kraals.

Extract ID: 539

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers

The Swahili are not an ethnic unit

Groliers

The Swahili are not an ethnic unit but the coastal dwellers of a number of East African countries. They speak dialects of the Swahili tongue, structurally a Bantu language but with many borrowings from Arabic. The name Swahili, derived from an Arabic word meaning 'coast', can be applied to nearly half a million East Africans whose culture, trading economy, and language developed with the spread of Islam after Arab traders arrived among them about AD 500. The language is a lingua franca across East Africa to Zambia and the Congo and in places as distant as south Arabia, the Persian Gulf, and even the coast of Pakistan.

Extract ID: 1368

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 0

Four main language families - groups of languages presumably descended . . .

Four main language families - groups of languages presumably descended from distinct ancestral languages - are recognized in Africa: Afroasiatic, Nilo-Saharan, Niger-Kordofanian, and Khoisan.

Extract ID: 472

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E. Welmers
Page Number: 0.1

More than 1,700 distinct languages are spoken

More than 1,700 distinct languages are spoken on the African continent, and they constitute about 30 percent of all world languages. The exact number is impossible to ascertain, because not enough information is available about many of them to determine whether different names refer to distinct languages or merely to mutually intelligible dialects of larger languages. Groups of people who speak a distinct African Language range in size from several million down to a thousand or even fewer. Apart from North Africa, only a few African countries, for example, Somalia, Rwanda, and Burundi, have a single or a dominant Language. As a result, official languages are usually English, French, or Portuguese.

Extract ID: 484

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 0.2

History

The study of African languages began before 1600 and was the task of early Christian missionaries. Few works of lasting importance, however, were produced before 1850. Missionaries and some governmental administrators and agencies, in the colonial era and in the present time of independent African nations, have always been the primary contributors to research in African languages. Their goals have been largely practical: literacy, evangelization, and education. Strictly scholarly interest in African languages, centered in university programs, dates back to about 1850 in South Africa, the late 1920s in Europe, 1959 in the United States, and about 1960 in a number of other African institutions.

The classification of African languages is, with a few minor refinements, that proposed by Joseph H. Greenberg in 1963. Recently, some revisions in the subclassification of the Niger-Congo languages have been suggested, but these are only tentatively accepted at present. Edgar Gregerson has recently theorized that the Nilo-Saharan and Niger-Kordofanian Language families may have been related in the extremely distant past as members of an even older 'Kongo-Saharan' superfamily.

Extract ID: 485

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 0.3

Phonetic Characteristics

Although the Khoisan languages, spoken by some hunting and gathering or cattle-raising peoples in southern Africa, make up only a fraction of the languages of Africa, they are of special interest because of their unique use of 'click' consonants. This click is similar to the sound one makes when saying 'tsk, tsk' or that one uses to spur on a horse or to imitate the sound of a cork popping out of a bottle. But clicks function as the following consonants do in the Roman alphabet: p, t, and k. In most Khoisan languages, almost every noun, verb, and adjective begins with such a click. The use of clicks has spread into some neighboring Bantu languages, notably IsiXhosa; they are generally represented in the written Language by the letters c, x, and q, which are not needed to represent other sounds.

Languages of the Niger-Kordofanian and Nilo-Saharan families, spoken by the majority of Saharan and sub-Saharan peoples, generally do not permit consonant sequences like those in such English words as struts or prints. Consonants followed by 'glides,' such as the w and y sounds, however, are common. Examples are the Igbo word akwa ('cloth') and the Nupe word kyakya ('bicycle'). Common consonantal sequences are a nasal followed by an oral consonant: mb, nd, and ng and also mp, nt, nk, and other combinations. These may function as unit consonants; some well-known names, for example, are properly syllabified as Ta-nza-ni-a, U-ga-nda, and Zi-mba-bwe. In some languages, however, nasals may be syllables in their own right; they are just hummed, without a preceding or following vowel. An example is the Igbo word nta ('small'). Many languages permit only a few different syllable-final consonants or none at all.

Almost all languages of sub-Saharan Africa are tone languages; the northern West Atlantic languages, Swahili, and a few others are not. In a tone Language, distinctions in pitch are as important in the makeup of words as are distinctions in consonants or vowels. Every word has its own tone or tone sequence, which may, however, undergo definable changes in some contexts. Tone may also signal grammatical differences. Some languages have two to four distinct tone levels ('discrete level' systems). Others have two, sometimes three levels, plus a slight lowering of nonlow tones ('downstep'), as much as six or seven times in a phrase or sentence ('terraced level' systems).

Extract ID: 486

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 0.4

Grammatical Characteristics

A striking grammatical feature of most African languages is that modifiers come after, rather than before, the noun. For example, the translation of the Swahili sentence kisu kikubwa kimoja kile changu ('that one big knife of mine') is literally 'knife big one that my.' The order of grammatical elements in a sentence must also be noted. In some languages, like English, an object follows a verb. This is the rule in Igbo: o zuru mma ('he stole a knife'). The order of the Igbo words is the same as that of the English translation. However, in Kpelle the verb follows the object: e kali ya (literally, 'he a hoe bought').

At least some languages in every branch of the Niger-Kordofanian family, except Mande, have noun classes and agreement, or concord. This characteristic is most easily illustrated in a Bantu Language such as Swahili. Personal nouns in Swahili have a singular prefix m- and a plural prefix wa-, for example, mtu ('a person') and watu ('people'). Terms for trees and many other items have a singular prefix m- and a plural prefix mi-, for example, mti ('a tree') and miti ('trees'). Many other nouns have a singular prefix ki- and a plural prefix vi-, for example, kisu ('a knife') and visu ('knives').

Other singular-plural pairs are used as well as a 'liquid mass' class with the prefix ma-, for example, maji ('water') and mafuta ('oil'). Each prefix determines an appropriate concord prefix for noun modifiers as well as for verbal subject and object markers. Concord prefixes for a modifier meaning 'that' are shown in the following examples: mtu yule ('that person'), watu wale ('those people'); mti ule ('that tree'), miti ile ('those trees'); kisu kile ('that knife'), visu vile ('those knives'); maji yale ('that water'). Such systems vary from Language to Language, including the use of class-marking suffixes, rather than prefixes, but recognizable similarities pervade the Niger-Kordofanian languages. Many Kwa languages have no singular-plural contrast in nouns at all and yet show remnants of noun classification in what must once have been prefixes, for example, Igbo mpi ('horn {of an animal}'), but opi ('musical horn, flute').

Extract ID: 487

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 1

Afroasiatic family

The Afroasiatic family is considered a distinct language grouping. Its various languages are spoken primarily in northern Africa and in Ethiopia and Somalia, as well as outside the African continent. The branch called Chadic is spoken in northern Nigeria and adjacent territories. Hausa is the most widely spoken of the Chadic languages and, after Swahili the second most widely spoken language of sub-Saharan Africa. Between 10 and 15 million people are native Hausa speakers, and many others use it as a second language.

Extract ID: 473

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 2

Nilo-Saharan family

Languages in the Nilo-Saharan family are spoken in and just south of the Sahara, from Mali in the west to the Nile basin, and southward into Uganda, Kenya, and northern Tanzania.

The Songhai branch of Nilo-Saharan is spoken by the 500,000 or so people who live along the great bend of the Niger from Mali to northwestern Nigeria. It consists of Songhai, Dyerma, and Dendi, all closely related and possibly mutually intelligible.

The Saharan branch, primarily Kanuri and Teda, is spoken by more than 2.5 million people who live from northeastern Nigeria north through Niger and Chad to the Libyan border.

Maban, Fur, and Koman are three small branches; each comprises one or only a few languages.

The remaining branch of the Nilo-Saharan family is Chari-Nile.

Several Chari-Nile languages, most spoken by only a small number of people, form the Central Sudanic group of languages, which are spoken by people scattered from the vicinity of Lake Chad to the Nile basin.

An Eastern Sudanic group primarily includes the Nilotic languages: Dinka, which is spoken by 1 to 2 million people; Nuer and Shilluk in southern Sudan; Achooli and Lwo in Uganda; Nandi and Suk in Kenya; and Maasai in northern Tanzania. Each of the Eastern Sudanic languages is spoken by a few hundred thousand people.

Two small isolated languages, Berta and Kunama, complete the Chari-Nile branch.

Extract ID: 474

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 3

Niger-Kordofanian

The third African language family is the Niger-Kordofanian, the languages of which are spoken in nearly all the areas from Senegal to Kenya, and south to South Africa. Niger-Kordofanian is divided into two subfamilies.

The first, Kordofanian, is small and encompasses five branches: Koalib, Teqali, Talodi, Tumtum, and Katla. All are spoken in southern Sudan. None, however, are well known, nor are they spoken by any sizable number of people.

The Niger-Congo subfamily, on the other hand, includes a majority of all the languages of Africa. The Niger-Congo subfamily comprises seven or perhaps eight branches.

Extract ID: 475

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 3.1

Mande branch

The Mande branch was apparently the first to diverge from the parent Niger-Congo stock, possibly 6,000 years ago. Mande languages are spoken in a large area of West Africa, from Senegal and Mali to Liberia and Ivory Coast, but they are not spoken along the Atlantic coast, except in Liberia, where about 40,000 people speak Vai. Isolated Mande languages are spoken in eastern Ivory Coast and western Ghana, in Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta), and in Benin and Nigeria. Mandekan is the most widely spoken and most important Mande language. It is better known by the names of its major dialects--Bambara, Maninka or Malinke, and Dyula--and several million people use it. Other important Mande languages are Mende in Sierra Leone and Kpelle in Liberia.

Extract ID: 476

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 3.2

West Atlantic

A second branch of Niger-Congo is West Atlantic, which may include two relatively distinct branches of the subfamily--northern and southern; the latter is also called Mel. The major Mel language is Temne, which is spoken by perhaps as many as 500,000 people in Sierra Leone. The northern West Atlantic languages of the Niger-Congo subfamily include Wolof, which is spoken by about 700,000 people and is the major language of Senegal and its capital city Dakar. Much more widely spoken, however, is Fula (also known as Fulani, Fulfulde, Peuhl), which is used by perhaps 4 to 5 million people. A major Fula concentration is found in northern Guinea. Some 2,400 km (1,500 mi) to the east, in northeastern Nigeria and Cameroon, is another large concentration of Fula speakers. Between these extremes are other permanent Fula settlements, and a great many more Fula speakers are seminomadic cattle herdsmen. Several West Atlantic languages are spoken by small groups of people along or near the Atlantic coast from Senegal to Liberia.

Extract ID: 477

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 3.3

Kru

The Kru branch of the Niger-Congo subfamily consists of about 30 languages that are spoken in southeastern Liberia and southwestern Ivory Coast. Probably the most widely used is the language known as Krahn in Liberia and as Guere in Ivory Coast; about 350,000 people use this language. Better known are Bassa, Kru, and Grebo in Liberia, and Bete in Ivory Coast.

Extract ID: 478

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 3.4

Gur

The Gur, or Burkinabe (Voltaic), branch of Niger-Congo is spoken in interior parts of West Africa, from eastern Mali and northern Ivory Coast through northern Benin. The most widely used Gur language, spoken by about 2 million people, is Moore in Burkina Faso.

Extract ID: 479

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 3.5

Kwa

Languages of the Kwa branch of Niger-Congo are spoken along the south-facing Atlantic coast from central Ivory Coast to Cameroon, and generally for a few hundred miles inland. Some major Kwa languages are Baule in Ivory Coast; Akan, including Fante, Twi, and Ashanti, in Ghana; Ewe in Ghana, and Togo along with Fon in Benin (the two perhaps constitute a single language); Yoruba, Igbo, and Efik in Nigeria. Yoruba and Igbo are the most widely spoken of these; between 6 and 10 million people speak each.

Extract ID: 480

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 3.6

Adamawa-Eastern

Languages of the Adamawa-Eastern branch are spoken from northeastern Nigeria east to Sudan, north almost to the Sahara, and south to extreme northern Zaire. In most of this area, these languages are interspersed with Chari-Nile languages of the Nilo-Saharan family; in the extreme west, Chadic languages of the Afroasiatic family are also spoken. Most of the Adamawa-Eastern languages are spoken by a relatively small number of people, and the status of many as distinct languages has not been determined. Zande is spoken by some 700,000 people in northern Zaire and adjacent parts of Sudan and the Central African Empire. Sango, a derivative of Ngbandi in northern Zaire, has become a widespread language of trade and government in the Central African Empire and, to some extent, in Chad.

Extract ID: 481

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 3.7

Benue-Congo

The Benue-Congo branch of Niger-Congo includes a number of groups of languages in northern and eastern Nigeria, most not widely spoken, and almost all languages of the great southern projection of Africa from Nigeria to northern Kenya to Capetown. The latter are the well-known Bantu languages. Apart from Bantu, the most widely used Benue-Congo language is Tiv in Nigeria; it is spoken by perhaps 1.4 million people. The Bantu languages were long thought to be an independent language family, partly because of the vast area in which they are spoken, the large number of languages that can be considered Bantu, and the large number of their speakers. More than one-third of the most widely used languages in Africa are Bantu languages. In terms of linguistic relationships, however, the Bantu languages are only an enormously overgrown subgroup within the Benue-Congo branch.

Most Bantu language names, as used by their own speakers, consist of a prefix and a stem. What is widely known as 'Swahili', for example, is properly KiSwahili; in written references, the stem -Swahili is capitalized, since non-Africans commonly use the stem alone. According to this convention, the following Bantu languages, each spoken by a million or more people, may be distinguished:

KiKongo and LiNgala (Zaire);

Umbundu (Angola);

IsiZulu and IsiXhosa, which are largely mutually intelligible (South Africa);

SeSotho, SePedi, Setswana, which are largely mutually intelligible (Lesotho, Botswana, South Africa); ChiShona (Zimbabwe); ChiBemba (Zambia and Zaire); ChiNyanja (Malawi); ShiTswa (Mozambique); KinyaRwanda and KiRundi, which are mutually intelligible (Burundi and Rwanda); LuGanda (Uganda); GiKikuyu (Kenya); KiSwahili (Tanzania, Kenya, and, to some extent, Uganda and Zaire). Of these languages, KiSwahili is the most widely spoken; however, for a vast majority of its 20 to 30 million speakers, Swahili is a second language, although they may speak it fluently.

Extract ID: 482

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: William E Welmers
Page Number: 4

Khoisan

The fourth and smallest language family of Africa is the Khoisan. Most Khoisan languages are spoken by the so-called Bushmen and Hottentots of southern Africa. These peoples include a few cattle-raising groups such as the Nama, totaling perhaps 50,000 speakers, and hunting and gathering groups in the Kalahari Desert of Botswana and Namibia. Many of these are bands of fewer than a hundred speakers of distinct languages. Also included in the Khoisan language family are two languages in northern Tanzania: Sandawe, which is spoken by perhaps 25,000 people, and Hatza, which is spoken by only a few hundred people. The study of language relationships reveals the dramatic and pathetic absorption, dispersion, and isolation of peoples such as most of the Khoisan speakers. Many of the Pygmy groups found in Zaire and Cameroon are thought to be Khoisan peoples who have adopted their neighbors' Niger-Congo languages.

Extract ID: 483

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M.Fagan
Page Number: L1

Leakey family

The British anthropologists Louis S. B. Leakey, born Aug 7, 1903, died Oct 1, 1972, his wife Mary, born Mary Nichol, Feb 6, 1913, and their son Richard, born Dec 19, 1944, have made major contributions to the study of human evolution. Louis and Mary Leakey investigated early human campsites at Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, and found important hominid fossils more than 1.75 million years old.

Extract ID: 495

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M.Fagan
Page Number: L2

Leakey family

The son of a missionary in Kenya, Louis Seymour Bazett Leakey studied archaeology at Cambridge University from 1922 to 1926. He then returned to Kenya, where he investigated Stone Age cultures in East Africa, then a pioneer field of research.

Extract ID: 496

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M.Fagan
Page Number: L3

Leakey family

From 1931 to 1959, Louis and his second wife, Mary, worked at Olduvai gorge, reconstructing a long sequence of Stone Age cultures dating from approximately 2 million to 100,000 years ago. They documented the early history of stone technology from simple stone-chopping tools and flakes to relatively sophisticated, multipurpose hand axes..

Extract ID: 497

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CD Groliers Encyclopedia, 1994~
Extract Author: Brian M.Fagan
Page Number: L4

Leakey family

In 1959 the Leakeys discovered the skull of Australopithecus boisei (a species of the prehuman genus Australopithecus). This skull was later dated at about 1.75 million years of age, using potassium argon-dating. The Leakeys also excavated another skull of a less robust individual in somewhat lower levels.

Extract ID: 501
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