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Book ID 413

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Extract Author: Joseph Warungu
Extract Date: 2000 October 16

Arusha

BBC Online

Arusha has played an important role in Tanzania's history

The town forms a crossroads at the heart of the East African region

Arusha may not be the capital of Tanzania, but it jostles with Dar es Salaam for world recognition.

The International Tribunal on Rwanda is based in Arusha - as is the born-again regional baby known as the East African Community.

And if that's not reason enough for many to take off their hats to this cool, northern town, then historical reasoning comes to play.

It was here, in 1967, that the late Founding President Mwalimu Julius Nyerere set out his ideas of African socialism or Ujamaa - and later tried but failed to bring peace to neighbouring Burundi, through a process of dialogue that continues to date.

But this is not why political heavyweights have made a date with Arusha before polling day.

Last week, the UDP Presidential candidate John Cheo was here to woo the voters - followed on Tuesday by Professor Ibrahim Lipumba of the CUF-Chadema coalition.

The next day, the Tanzania Labour Party's Augustine Mrema took to the podium in search of votes.

President Benjamin Mkapa himself will also be in the area to explain to the people why five years is hardly time enough for anyone to drive Tanzania to the destination of peace and prosperity.

Much is at stake here. For years this region tended to go the opposition way, and now the ruling CCM is fighting tooth and nail to see if this time it can capture the heart and soul of northern Tanzania.

For the opposition, it is time to prove that the few bruising political battles that went the CCM way are a thing of the past.

As for the voters, they have a lot on their minds without worrying about the slanging matches going on around them.

This agricultural area has recently seen more sunshine rather than rainfall to water the crops.

Another issue has been the frequent fatal battles for Tanzanite mining rights in the Mererani area.

And hard economic times have been hitting the entire country.

With these concerns on their minds, many will only give a passing glimpse and a distracted ear to the numerous party flags and the poster-covered pick-up trucks that crawl across the town with huge loud speakers blaring the message 'kura kwangu' - vote for me.

Extract ID: 1537

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Extract Author: Roger Dean
Extract Date: 2000 Dec 11

Cattle clashes in Tanzania

More than 400 people have fled their homes in Morogoro region, Tanzania, after clashes between farmers and pastoralists at the weekend left 31 people dead.

Arrests have been made and weapons confiscated, as police and government ministers scramble to head off further violence.

The clashes were sparked off when Luguru farmers confiscated cows belonging to Masaai herdsmen.

The cattle, they said, were damaging crops on their farms in Kilosa district near the central Tanzanian town of Morogoro.

Of the 31 deaths in the ensuing two days of violence, most were reported to be women and children.

Twenty-seven people have also been injured, and more than 60 houses burned.

Arrests

The Field Force Unit, Tanzania's elite paramilitary police, are now deployed in the region and are maintaining order.

Twenty-nine people have been arrested and eight firearms and a quantity of ammunition confiscated.

Tanzania's Prime Minister, the Minister of Home Affairs and the Minister for Regional Administration all visited the area at the weekend.

Tanzania is very proud of its record of national unity.

Home Affairs Minister Mohamed Khatibu said on Monday that he 'wouldn't describe it as a fight between Masaai and Waluguru. That would be tribalism. This is a land issue.'

The government, he said, would establish which areas would be set aside for farming and which for cattle grazing, and the herdsmen are to be encouraged to settle and provided with agricultutal facilities.

The root cause of the violence is pressure on agricultural land, and after a year of very low rainfall clashes become more likely as cattle move from area to area.

Similar clashes involving nomadic Masaai herdsmen were reported in 1997, also a very dry year.

Extract ID: 1541

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Extract Date: 10 jan 2001

Timeline: Tanzania

A chronology of key events:

1498 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visits Tanzanian coast.

1506 - Portuguese succeed in controlling most of the East African coast.

1699 - Portuguese ousted from Zanzibar by Omani Arabs.

1884 - German Colonisation Society begins to acquire territory on the mainland.

1886 - Britain and Germany sign an agreement allowing the Germans to set up a sphere of influence over mainland Tanzania, except for a narrow piece of territory along the coast which remained the authority of the sultan of Zanzibar, while Britain enjoys a protectorate over Zanzibar.

1905-06 - Indigenous Maji Maji revolt suppressed by German troops.

British rule

1916 - British, Belgian and South African troops occupy most of German East Africa.

1919 - League of Nations gives Britain a mandate over Tanganyika - today's mainland Tanzania.

1929 - Tanganyika African Association founded.

1946 - United Nations converts British mandate over Tanganyika into a trusteeship.

1954 - Julius Nyerere and Oscar Kambona transform the Tanganyika African Association into the Tanganyika African National Union.

Independence

1961 - Tanganyika becomes independent with Julius Nyerere as prime minister.

1962 - Tanganyika becomes a republic with Nyerere as president.

1963 - Zanzibar becomes independent.

1964 - Sultanate of Zanzibar overthrown by Afro-Shirazi Party in a violent, left-wing revolution; Tanganyika and Zanzibar merge to become Tanzania, with Nyerere as president and the head of the Zanzibar government and leader of the Afro-Shirazi Party, Abeid Amani Karume, as vice-president.

1967 - Nyerere issues the Arusha Declaration, which calls for egalitarianism, socialism and self-reliance.

1977 - The Tanganyika African National Union and Zanzibar's Afro-Shirazi Party merge to become the Party of the Revolution, which is proclaimed as the only legal party.

1978 - Ugandans temporarily occupy a piece of Tanzanian territory.

1979 - Tanzanian forces invade Uganda, occupying the capital, Kampala, and help to oust President Idi Amin.

Multiparty politics

1985 - Nyerere retires and is replaced by the president of Zanzibar, Ali Mwinyi.

1992 - Constitution amended to allow multiparty politics.

1995 - Benjamin Mkapa chosen as president in Tanzania's first multiparty election.

1999 October - Julius Nyerere dies.

2000 - Mkapa elected for a second term, winning 72% of the vote.

Extract ID: 3107

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Extract Author: Professor Lonnie Thompson
Extract Date: February 19, 2001

White peak on Kilimanjaro to disappear

The beautiful ice fields on the top of Mount Kilimanjaro in East Africa could completely melt away in the next 20 years if the Earth continues to warm at the rate many scientists now claim.

The calculation comes from Professor Lonnie Thompson, of Ohio State University, who has made an aerial survey of the famous Tanzanian peak.

He said comparisons with previous mapping showed 33% of Mt Kilimanjaro's ice had disappeared in the last two decades - 82% had gone since 1912. Studies on other tropical peaks had revealed a similar picture, he told the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He warned this melting could have serious repercussions for drinking water supply, crop irrigation, hydroelectric production and tourism.

"Kilimanjaro is the number one foreign-currency earner for the Tanzanian Government. Twenty thousand tourists go there every year because one of the attractions is to see ice at three degrees south of the equator. But I think there is a real possibility that that ice will be gone by 2015."

Professor Thompson has spent about 20 years studying the tropical ice fields on the mountains of South America, Africa, China and Tibet.

He told the AAAS meeting that the Quelccaya ice cap in the Peruvian Andes had shrunk by 20% since 1963. And its largest outlet glacier, known as Qori Kalis, was accelerating in its retreat - 155 metres per year in the last survey compared with just 48 metres per year in the previous study period in 1995-98.

"The glaciers are like natural dams," he said. "They store the snow in the wet season and they melt in the dry season and bring water flow to the rivers."

He said their loss was a blow also to science which used the compacted ice built up in the glaciers over decades and centuries to investigate past climate.

"The loss of these frozen 'archives' threatens water resources for hydroelectric power production, irrigation for crops and municipal water supplies. Moreover, the melting of these smaller ice caps and glaciers leads to sea level rise."

Professor Thomspon's work is part of a large effort, under the auspices of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), to understand how the global environment is changing. According to the IGBP's executive director, Dr Will Steffan, Thompson's work adds to the growing body of evidence of a rapidly changing Earth.

"Retreating glaciers is one of many symptoms that the Earth is undergoing dramatic changes within our lifetime. Climate change is just one piece in a much bigger puzzle."

BBC News Online

Extract ID: 3109

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Extract Author: Andrew Harding
Extract Date: 16 March, 2001

Bloodsucker flies torment lions

Nairobi, Kenya

Lions in Tanzania are being driven to an early grave by swarms of bloodthirsty flies.

The flies have been particularly prevalent in one of the world's most famous wildlife parks, the Ngorongoro Crater.

There, the blood-sucking insects are literally pestering the lions to death.

The big cats are so traumatized by the experience that they forget to eat, and spend all their time trying to hide, climbing up trees and crouching in long grass.

They are, as one conservation official put it, dying of trauma.

So far, at least six lions are reported to have been killed by the flies in the Ngorongoro Crater - a spectacular wildlife reserve set in the middle of an old volcano.

The flies are a breed called stomoxys - they have sharp tubes sticking out of their mouths, which they use to suck blood.

They have been attacking the lions' open wounds, causing considerable pain.

The flies' numbers are believed to increase rapidly when there is an extreme climate change. After a long drought, it has been raining heavily in the park.

Intervention unlikely

Scientists from around the world have been helping the Tanzanian authorities to identify and deal with the problem.

But these are not farm animals, and wildlife officials say they are reluctant to intervene with pesticides or any other treatment.

They argue that the laws of nature should be allowed to take their course - the survival of the fittest.

In fact, the flies are not the only menace to larger animals in the Ngorongoro Crater.

Since May last year, hundreds of buffalos, dozens of zebras, five rhinos and three hippos have reportedly died in mysterious circumstances.

A disease called east coast fever, and another called Babesiosis are suspected.

Extract ID: 3127

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Extract Author: By Christine Otieno in Dar es Salaam
Extract Date: 11 January, 2002

Asians flee Tanzanian land clash

Friday, 11 January, 2002, 17:50 GMT
Asians flee Tanzanian land clash
By Christine Otieno in Dar es Salaam

Asian farmers living in northern Tanzania have fled to the town of Arusha after two days of fighting with local nomadic pastoralists left three dead.

Riot police have deployed in the area to quell the violence, which flared when a pastoralist was killed after trying to trying to graze cattle on an Asian farm.

Angered by the death, local cattle herders attacked the farm, killing two Asians.

Director of Criminal Investigation Adadi Rajabu said he had sent three senior police officers from Dar es Salaam, to lead the unit of the Tanzanian Field Force.

He said the area around the towns of Babati and Karatu was unstable, and gunfire had been reported, adding his officers would investigate what lay behind the clashes.

Retaliation

According to police and local sources, the fighting began after a local pastoralist grazed his cattle on a farm owned by an Asian.

When the farm owner asked him to remove his cattle from his land, the pastoralist apparently refused.

It is unclear how the cattle herder met his death, but the local community then attacked the farm in question, killing two Asian farmers and injuring three others.

Retaliatory violence between the locals and the farmers ensued, resulting in the mass exodus of Asians into Arusha, the nearest big town.

Tensions between the Asian farmers and the local communities have always been high.

The local tribes, mainly migratory pastoralists, have been complaining about the commercial farms which reduce the grazing areas, especially during dry weather.

It is during such conditions that pastoralists migrate in search of pasture, inevitably bringing them into conflict with the farm owners.

Mr Rajabu said that whatever the reason for the violence, the police would not and could not condone it.

He said once his officers had investigated the matter, all those involved, by they Asian or local, would be arrested and charged in a court of law.

Extract ID: 3271

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Extract Author: Christine Otieno in Dar es Salaam
Extract Date: 15 January, 2002

Arrests follow Tanzania land clashes

Tensions are still high in Northern Tanzania where Asian farmers and locals clashed last week.

Riot police sent in to quell the trouble have now arrested 11 people and are combing the nearby mountains for more.

The two groups have been at loggerheads over grazing land.

The fighting that began last week has resulted in three deaths - one herder and two Asians.

Of the 11 people arrested in the regions of Babati and Karatu, none are of Asian origin.

A source in Babati said that nine of the 11 people arrested have already appeared in court charged with the Asian couple's murder.

Still looking

Local authorities were forced to send in the riot police, Field Force Unit or FFU to help quell the fighting.

Many Asians fled to Arusha

The unit was led by three senior police officers from Dar es Salaam.

The police say that in total they are looking for over 20 locals but would not say whether they intended to arrest any Asian farmers.

The trouble itself started when one local herder grazed his cattle on a farm owned by an Asian.

When the man was asked to move, he refused.

It is not known how the man was shot dead.

Dry hills

The local herders retaliated by attacking the farms and killing two of the occupants.

The victims have been named as 81-year-old Bhambhil Patel and his 71-year-old wife Dihraj Patel.

The dead herder has not been named.

Kavita Patel's farm was attacked

The Asian farmers who fled to nearby Arusha saying they feared for their lives, are asking for government intervention.

The farmers say they own their land legally and consequently can bar any of the local herders from grazing their cattle on it.

In response, the herders have appealed to the President Benjamin Mkapa, asking him to visit the region and experience the hardships they suffer.

The herders say all the arable land has been bought out by Asian farmers, leaving them with only dry hilly regions to graze their cattle.

This, they say, is unfair and is resulting in the death of a number of cows.

So far the government has not responded to either the herders or the Asian farmers.

Eyewitnesses report that it has been quiet around Karatu and the only gunfire heard was near Babati, some 300km away.

Karatu has had no problems whatsoever. The problem was mainly in Babati on a farm called Mara Estate and was an ongoing problem between the farmer and the pastoralists for a long time. The farmer gave the gun to his Manager, who let it off and the retaliation was ugly.

MK emailed:

".. The Rift Valley is between us and them - Babati is south and east and 200 miles as the crow flies. Sad that these incidents blow up, but they do from time to time and has always been my point that nothing is as precious as living as good neighbours inspite of the disappointments that arise. Disappointments are everywhere and one has to try and find solutions together. I am saying nothing new, I know but in anger it is easy to forget and the consequences often so sad. The owner lost his Father (81) and Mother (71) and more I dont want to think about."

Extract ID: 3275

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Extract Author: Jenny Cuffe
Extract Date: 29 January 2002

File on Four

BBC Radio 4

Tuesday 29 January 2002

Presented by Jenny Cuffe

In the run up to Christmas the Government found itself divided and under heavy criticism over its decision to approve the export of a 28 million air traffic control system to Tanzania.

Tanzania is one the world's poorest countries with a per capita income of little more than 200 a year. It's also one of only four countries to have seen some tangible benefit from the high profile initiative on debt relief which was trumpeted by the world's richest nations at a G7 meeting two years ago. The promise then was that $100 billion-worth of debt would be written off. So far only $18 billion has been, including $3 billion owed by Tanzania

As part of the deal, the Government in Tanzania has agreed to put in place a series of economic and social reforms agreed with the World Bank and the IMF. But there are critics of the conditions which have been imposed - not least because the Government in Dar es Salaam will have to take out new loans to fund some of the reforms.

One of their targets is to have all primary-aged children in schools with class sizes under 50in the next five years - and to abolish primary school fees. Meeting these demands will cost $600 million - almost half of which will come from a new loan from the World Bank.

So how far does the gesture on debt relief really go in addressing the fundamental problems caused by poverty in Tanzania? And where does the decision to buy a highly expensive radar system fit in to the plans for reform?

Extract ID: 3342

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Extract Date: 29 January, 2002

Tanzania responds to air traffic furore

The Tanzanian Government has defended its decision to buy a new air traffic control system from the United Kingdom. Tanzanian Foreign Minister Jakaya Kikwete tells the BBC's File on Four editor David Ross why he is puzzled by the furore.

The controversy over the contract hit the headlines towards the end of December.

There were even reports of splits in the UK cabinet, with ministers such as International Development Minister Clare Short angry at the government's decision to grant BAE Systems an export licence for the $39.5m (28m) system.

Critics claim it is too expensive for Tanzania's needs and is intended for military as much as civilian use.

But, speaking on the BBC's File on 4 programme, Mr Kikwete maintains there was no need for the fuss.

We are not a department of the World Bank - we are a country and it's a bit insulting to suggest that we need to wait for the World Bank to prescribe what's best for us

Tanzanian Foreign Minister Jakaya Kikwete

"Our engineers prescribed the system which we required", he says.

"We put the contract out to tender, four companies competed and we got BAE Systems delivering to our specification. This is the system we wanted."

Which is fine except for the background against which the contract became public.

Debt relief

Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in Africa, and one of only four countries in the world to have had a portion of its international debt written off - a total of $3bn (2.1bn) which will be discounted over the next 20 years.

The relief will make a healthy dent in Tanzania's total international borrowings of more than $7bn.

Tanzania: one of the poorest countries in Africa

It was confirmed only after the Government in Dar es Salaam signed an agreement with the World Bank to implement the conditions of a so-called Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP).

Under the PRSP specific targets will be met for improvements across a wide range of social issues.

These range from infant mortality and increased access to education and health, to the provision of more roads and clean water supplies.

'Insulting'

Critics of the air-traffic control deal say the $39.5m (28m), borrowed at a reported interest rate of 4.9% from the UK's Barclays Bank, could have been better used to fund clinics or schools.

Even the World Bank has quietly demurred and is still reviewing the contract.

Foreign Minister Kikwete is adamant that it is not anyone else's business how his government elects to prioritise spending.

"We are not a department of the World Bank - we are a country and it's a bit insulting to suggest that we need to wait for the World Bank to prescribe what's best for us," Mr Kikwete said.

"The responsibility for Tanzania is in the hands of Tanzanians."

Benefits?

But the debate does not end with air traffic control and it raises fundamental questions about the overall benefits of the debt relief package.

Primary school education improved as part of debt package

One of the conditions to which the Tanzanian Government had to agree was greater access to education - all primary aged children will be in schools with class sizes under 50 in the next five years.

As part of that agreement, basic primary school fees have been abolished.

But the cost of these reforms will be $600m - and nearly half of that will have to be financed by further loans from the World Bank.

The government has also signed up to borrowing another $65 million from the Bank to fund agricultural improvement through a project which will provide subsidised seeds and fertiliser.

Critics question the wisdom of this. They say the project is modelled on a previous, smaller-scale scheme which collapsed and warn that it will do little to build a viable and sustainable agricultural sector.

In both these cases the Tanzanian Government hopes that its new borrowing will be paid for out of increases in gross domestic profit.

The World Bank and IMF predict that the necessary 6% growth in the country's economy is achievable.

But, for Kevin Watkins, Policy Director at Oxfam, the risk is that the benefits of debt relief will be wiped out by the government's need for further loans to fund reform.

"I think these are very fundamental questions. These are scarce financial resources and it's imperative that recipient governments are seen to direct those resources to areas where they will have a real impact on human development," Mr Watkins said.

Back in the foreign ministry, Mr Kikwete acknowledges a paradox in Tanzania's situation.

His government now needs to meet targets on social reform in order to qualify for help with its previous debt.

The spending on reform is likely to drive Tanzania further into debt.

But Mr kikwete says his country has little choice.

"What else do you do? If there were better conditions we would take them.

"But if these are the conditions, then this is the world we are in and this is the reality we have to understand. We are biting the bullet."

File on Four 4 is broadcast on Tuesday 29th January on BBC Radio 4 at 2000GMT and repeated on Sunday at 1700GMT.

Extract ID: 3341

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Extract Date: 20 March, 2002

Army worms ravage Tanzania crops

Army-worms have devoured about 30,000 acres of crops and pasture in the northern regions of Tanzania, raising fears of food shortages.

Farmers in the Arusha and Kilimanjaro regions have lost their maize to the pests which are spreading swiftly with the help of strong winds.

The worms invaded the area last month but efforts to exterminate the Army Worms have been hampered by a lack of pesticides.

Plans to plant beans, one of the major food and commercial crops in the regions, have been put on hold for fear that the plants will be devoured by the Army Worms.

Desperate farmers are doing anything they can think of to fight the pests, including covering their plants in ash to deter the worms from landing on them.

'Bush-fire'

A resident of Moshi rural in Kilimanjaro region, Alloyce Lyimo was quoted by Tanzania's Guardian newspaper as saying that all of his three hectares of maize plants have been destroyed.

"Our major problem is that the wind is still blowing and the army-worms are spreading like bush-fire to other areas," he said.

The Department of Agriculture in the regions has been blamed for failing to control the pests despite being advised of the invasion of the destructive Army Worms.

Farming experts have been despatched to the affected areas and neighbouring villages to assess the extent of the damage.

Extract ID: 3385

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Extract Date: 10 February, 2004

Tanzania shooting raises concern

Police have shot dead six suspected gangsters in a foiled robbery attempt at a bank in northern Tanzania.

Police chief James Kombe said the gangsters were ambushed by policemen while trying to break into a safe at Post Bank in Arusha.

Extract ID: 4688

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Extract Date: 4 August, 2004

Disease bouts knock crater lions

The research is detailed in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

Numbers of lions in the Ngorongoro Crater have been knocked severely by several bouts of acute disease over the past 40 years.

Between 1994 and 2001, outbreaks of canine distemper virus have kept the Lion population low, with numbers dipping to just 29 individuals in 1998.

The scientists suggest that climate change, or an increasing local human population could be to blame.

The research is detailed in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

The Ngorongoro Crater in Tanzania is a truly unique place. The crater, which is 610m deep and 260km squared, is a microcosm of East African scenery and wildlife.

Many crater animals, like lions, live there and there alone, making it a near-contained mini biosphere.

For scientists that is very interesting, because it is easier for them to know exactly what pressures the creatures face. They can follow a population of animals over time, and record how changes in things like food supply, or competition, affect them.

The lions of the Ngorongoro Crater have been monitored closely since the 1960s. One question researchers wanted to answer was what regulated their population numbers.

In large carnivores like lions, one might expect food supply to be the main limiting factor. But in recent years, disease is a more likely restriction, according to Bernard Kissui and Craig Packer, of the University Minnesota, US.

There are probably enough prey animals like buffalo in the Ngorongoro Crater to support about 120 lions.

But at various times over the last 40 years Lion numbers have dropped well below that - and in the last 10 years there have rarely been more than 60 in the crater.

Kissui and Packer believe that disease is the biggest culprit in this population dip.

In 1962, the crater Lion population crashed from about 100 to 12, which coincided with an outbreak of blood-sucking stable flies.

After this severe knock, the population climbed again, to reach over 100 by 1975. Lion numbers then simmered away at fairly stable proportions until 1983, when they went into decline again - reaching a low point of 29 individuals in 1998.

"Disease appears to be the only factor that has held the crater Lion population below its carrying capacity for the past 10 years," Bernard Kissui and Craig Packer write in their research paper.

Although many diseases threaten lions, canine distemper virus (CDV), which normally affects dogs, has been a particular menace to the big cats.

Climate change?

The researchers are not entirely sure what has caused this increase in levels of disease.

They suggest it could be due to the fact that there are many more humans in the area now, and with them come domestic dogs - which carry CDV.

Or disease outbreaks could be exacerbated by climate change. In the last 10 years East Africa has suffered many more droughts and floods, which seem to coincide with bouts of disease.

"The weather in East Africa was more variable in the 1990s than in the 1970s and 1980s, and all four Lion die-offs coincided with drought and flood," write Kissui and Packer.

"The 1962 [stable fly] plague coincided with heavy floods that immediately followed a severe drought in 1961... and the 2001 CDV epidemic followed the drought of 2000."

Whatever the cause of the disease outbreaks, they put the fragile population of Ngorongoro Crater lions at serious risk.

Kissui and Packer concluded: "Endangered populations can remain at serious risk even with a large, stable food supply and no real threats from competing species."

Extract ID: 4726

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Extract Author: Daniel Dickinson
Extract Date: 17 August, 2004

Butterfly farming proves worth a flutter

BBC reporter in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania

Haji Mshangama charges across the hilly landscape of the East Usamabara Mountains brandishing his blue butterfly net.

Suddenly he snaps the net down and has caught what he is after: a pregnant female Salamis Parhassus butterfly.

This is the beginning of a process lasting up to two weeks which will culminate in the export of the live pupa or chrysalis to a butterfly exhibit somewhere in the US or Europe.

Mr Mshangama is a happy and increasingly rich man, at least by local standards.

Working with seven other farmers, he began farming butterflies just ten months ago. In June his group sold pupae worth $500, a staggering amount of money, in an area where many farmers are earning just one or two dollars a day.

"My friends did think I was a bit crazy when I started farming butterflies," Mr Mshangama says.

"But when they saw how much money I was making they realised it was a good thing to do and they no longer say that.

"Now they all want to farm butterflies."

And so they are: there are now around 250 farmers based in four villages in the East Usamabara Mountains who are raising butterflies.

This year they expect to earn around $20,000, and probably more next year.

They have turned their back on some local traditions - cutting timber, poaching, giving up work on the tea estates which dot the hillsides - and transforming themselves from subsistence farmers into small scale cash crop entrepreneurs.

Despite the unfamiliar technicalities of butterfly farming, they are getting the hang of things.

East Usamabara farmers are already excelling at producing a wide range of pupae which are as colourful and varied as the butterfly that will finally hatch from them.

The farmers begin by catching a pregnant female butterfly and putting it in a large fly-cage. Once the butterfly lays her eggs on her favourite type of plant, which the farmer has grown from seeds collected in the mountain forest, they are collected and placed in a small canister.

The eggs hatch into caterpillars which are placed in their own cage, where they eat copiously before creating their protective covering which is the pupa.

The pupae of many different varieties, some of which can be found only in the East Usamabara Mountains, are collected from the individual farmers, put on a bus to the Tanzanian commercial capital, Dar es Salaam.

From here they are sent by courier to live butterfly farms and exhibits overseas.

Only there do they hatch into butterflies.

Asha Ibrahim is one of many farmers who has taken up the challenge of farming butterflies. "It is easy work, a lot easier than other types of farming," she says.

"The important thing is to make sure you do the right thing at the right time."

The butterfly idea was brought to the farmers by Theron Morgan-Brown, a young American biologist.

He spotted the potential of the area, its wide range of butterfly types and the demand for rare African butterflies coming from the increasing number of exhibits around the world.

"In Africa the only commercial exporters of butterflies are in Kenya, South Africa and now Tanzania," he says.

"So these farmers are well placed to do good business."

Theoretically, butterflies can be farmed wherever they are found, although areas rich in bio-diversity are more likely to provide the range of different species wanted by exhibits.

Areas of West Africa, as well as central and southern Africa, could provide yet more species not seen "live" outside Africa before.

As with any commodity, however, the danger is that over-eager production will force down prices, and the business may become less viable.

Extract ID: 4728

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Extract Author: Emmanuel Muga, BBC Sport, Dar es Salaam
Extract Date: 2 November, 2004

Trautmann honour echoed in Tanzania

Germany's Bert Trautmann is not just remembered with fondness in England, a nation that honoured him with an OBE on Monday, but also in Tanzania.

The former Manchester City goalkeeper, who arrived in England as a prisoner of war, received the prestigious award for his role in improving Anglo-German relations in the wake of World War II.

Yet some Tanzanians recall him as a father of the country's football.

Trautmann arrived in the East African nation in 1974 as part of West Germany's sports assistance programme, where he succeeded in reorganising the country's league as well as developing the skills of local coaches.

He left after two years due to instability in the country's FA but laid a foundation upon which Tanzania built to qualify for their only African Cup of Nations finals in 1980.

"The league system we have now is a brain child of Trautmann," Atillion Tagalile, a former sports reporter, told BBC Sport.

"Before that, we had chaos - and not something you can call a football league."

"Trautmann can well be described as the father of modern football in Tanzania."

Before Trautmann's arrival, Tanzania had a 20-team league played in a two-legged home and away knockout format.

However, he reduced the number of teams to twelve and introduced a league system of playing home and away.

In addition, the German held coaching clinics for local coaches and formed an association known as Tanzania Football Coaches Association (Tafca) to oversee skill development for the coaches.

"He conducted coaching courses throughout the country," said former Tanzanian international Abdallah Kibaden.

"I attended one of his courses in Arusha in 1975 soon after retiring from the national team.

"Before his arrival, there was no training system for the coaches."

Trautmann, who is now 82 and received his OBE at the British Embassy in Berlin, also sent Tanzanian coaches to Cologne in Germany to acquire advanced coaching skills.

Joel Bendera, the current chairman of the government's National Sports Council, is one of the coaches who benefited from the scheme.

In 1976, Bendera travelled to Cologne to attend a nine-month course along with two fellow Tanzanians.

When Bendera returned, he was appointed head coach of Tanzania's national team and guided it to the 1980 Nations Cup finals in Nigeria.

Former international Kibaden believes that Trautmann also contributed to Tanzania's qualification through his youth development programme.

"He put emphasis on youth development as well, he toured the country in search of talents and we were able to get a strong team that went on to play the Nations Cup in Nigeria," added Kibaden, who is currently head coach of Tanzania's under-17 side.

Trautmann, who achieved fame in England by playing on in the 1956 FA Cup final despite breaking his neck, helped restructure the FA as well as designing an administrative procedure for the association.

"He reorganised our operation structure and also worked with administrators on football development," Said El Maamry, who was chairman of the Football Association of Tanzania (Fat) at the time, said.

"But the crisis within our FA frustrated him."

Trautmann cut short his long development programme in Tanzania due to instability within the country's FA.

Maladministration has continued to haunt Tanzania's football, whose national team is ranked 169th in the world by Fifa.

Extract ID: 4890

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Extract Date: 8 June, 2005

Neighbours row over Kilimanjaro

Tanzania's tourist industry has accused Kenya of trying to hoodwink tourists into thinking Africa's highest mountain is in Kenya rather than Tanzania.

Kenya's tourism minister Morris Dzoro told a travel agents conference that Mount Kilimanjaro was one of his country's top tourist attractions.

This angered Tanzanian tour operators who said Mr Dzoro was "trying to hijack our tourists and take their money."

The 5,895m high mountain is in Tanzania, some 20km from Kenya.

The nearby Tanzanian town of Arusha has its own international airport.

Chief executive of the Tanzanian Association of Tour Operators, Mustapha Akunaay, told the BBC News Website that the Kenyan comments were perhaps understandable when coming from marketing people but not when delivered by a minister.

"I stand by my criticism. This information from Kenya is distorted and is not right."

Kenya already has twice as many tourists as Tanzania and Tanzania's tourist industry fears it could lose out even further once an agreed customs union comes into force.

Extract ID: 5074
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