Coffee

Name ID 111

See also

Internet Web Pages
Extract Date: 1997

'Mother' of coffee culture

Wild Arabica Coffee was introduced in Tanzania by Christian missionaries from the Island of Re-union (Bourbon) between 1980s [sic] and 1890s, and was first grown at Kilema Mission on the slopes of Mt. Kilimanjaro.

Coffee spread slowly to other regions of Tanzania and later to Kenya, thus crowning Tanzania as the `Mother' of Coffee culture.

For years, Coffee has been Tanzania's primary forex earner, providing the country with between 26 and 35 per cent of its foreign income

Lost the link for this, so not sure where this came from.

Extract ID: 1412

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxi
Extract Date: 1897-1903

plantation initiated.

... plantation of Sisal, Coffee and rubber is initiated.

Extract ID: 1234

See also

Campbell, Alexander Empire in Africa
Extract Date: 1913 and before

The natives of Tanganyika began to grow coffee before 1913

The natives of Tanganyika began to grow Coffee before 1913 - during the period of German rule.

Extract ID: 1373

See also

Spear, Thomas Mountain Farmers, Moral Economies of Land and Agricultural Development in Arusha and Meru
Extract Date: 1920's

Eventually coffee became the most lucrative and important cash crop

Eventually Coffee became the most lucrative and important cash crop. Planted initially in the 1920s, overall production and the number of people growing Coffee grew only slowly during the 1930s and the early 1940s owing to depressed prices, but then picked up substantially in the 1950s and 1960s with rising prices and returns.

Extract ID: 1178

See also

nTZ Feedback
Extract Author: Bill Christie
Page Number: 2008 10 28
Extract Date: 1920's

Temi Coffee Estate

I am trying to find out information about Temi Coffee Estate. My grandparents from Scotland were I believe the owners in the early 1920's. They ran it for two years and when the London Dock strikes and a locust invasion hit they lost their investment and left. They had many stories of their brief time their and I was just in Tanzania but was unable to get to the Temi Coffee Estate because I did not know that it was still there until I got to Arusha but was on a very tight schedule. If you know anything of it or have any photos I would be most interested.

Extract ID: 5864

See also

Campbell, Alexander Empire in Africa
Extract Date: 1922

Coffee planters

There were fewer than 600 native planters in 1922;

Extract ID: 1374

See also

Spear, Thomas Mountain Farmers, Moral Economies of Land and Agricultural Development in Arusha and Meru
Page Number: 143
Extract Date: 1927

Haarer, A.E.

District Agricultural Officer: supported the 1927 restrictions on Coffee growing by the Meru

Extract ID: 1297

See also

Arusha: A Brochure of the Northern Province and its Capital Town
Page Number: 05-7-9-11
Extract Date: 1929

Arusha as a Coffee-growing District

Existing Plantations ars mainly situated on the Southern slopes of Mount Meru (14,960 ft.), but excellent plantations have also been established on the Western, Northsrn and Eastern Slopes where, on account of soil differences, it was at one time thought Coffee would not thrive. This fallacy has been disproved by the very fine plantations now existing, and with it has been exploded the belief that Coffee would only grow in what was at one time known as the " Coffee Belt." This belt is perhaps still the best producing area on account of the rainfall it enjoys and also on account of its very generous water supply from many permanent rivers.

From the Eastern end of the mountain, the base of which is approximately twenty miles wide, there are the Maji ya Chai, the Usa, the Magadorisho, the Tengeru, the Malala, the Magameru, the Nduruma, the Kidjenji, the Themi [Temi], the Naru, the Narok, the Burka and the Engare OI'motonyi, which cross the main road from Moshi. Higher up in the mountain there are tributaries feeding these main streams, making this area the best watered in East Africa.

This "belt" is, however, not now the exclusive Coffee-growing area that it was. Plantations having been established as far afield as Mbugwe (near Lake Manyara), Babati, Ndereda and near Mbulu; Eighty to One Hundred and Fifty miles west of Arusha, while on the southern slopes of the Mondul range, about twenty-five miles west of Arusha, there is an excellent plantation.

The type of Coffee grown is Arabica; Mocha, and Blue Mountain varieties predominating, but a comparitively new variety known as "Kent's Hybrid" is finding favour and many planters are now planting this variety for its disease resisting qualities.

One great advantage to the young planter is that Coffee in this district bears its first fly-crop at about 2 1/2 years and at 3 1/2 years a crop which in cases have reached as high as 3/4 of a ton of parchment to the acre, while subsequent crops have reached the high-water mark of 1 1/4 tons of parchment to the acre. Such heavy bearing, however, it is advocated should be discouraged, as the trees in after years may suffer, but good soil, altitude and rainfall, or the lack of it, are factors which are largely responsible for differences of opinion in matters concerning Coffee-growing. It is well-known, however, that given the necessary plant food, good rains, etc., the Coffee tree is a most prolific bearer.

It is not intended here to go into the capital necessary to establish a Coffee Plantation, as so much depends on the land to be cleared and indeed on the individual himself, that it is only possible to say that a general figure of 5,000 is quoted as being sufficient in ordinary circumstances to acquire land and to plant up and bring to the bearing stage an area which should bring the investor a good return on the capital outlay, plus a good living, and there is, of course, also the appreciation of land values.

It will be readily understood that a District so prolific for Coffee-growing is also suited to Fruit, and indeed to any plant life. Citrus may be said to almost grow wild, while Tomatoes once planted reappear after the first rains as a weed. With Coffee as the main crop and with transport difficulties in the past, perhaps insufficient attention has been given in the past to Fruit Culture, but where the settler has had an eye on the future, there are fine orchards containing Orange, Lemon, Fig, Guava, Avocado Pear, Apple, Plum, Peach, Lauquat, Paw-paw, Mulberries, Grapes, etc., in flourishing condition, while Strawberries are equal to the best. The Banana is even more prolific than Coffee and forms the chief diet of the local indigenous population.

Roses are generally in bloom the year round and horticulturists will find a veritable Eden in Arusha.

Hitherto planters and settlers have expended all their energies in establishing their plantations and farms, but as these are brought to fruition, fine homesteads are being erected; green lawns appear and a 'little piece of England' is transplanted under tropic skies.

Perhaps much of the equable climatic conditions enjoyed in Arusha are due to the vast snow-capped Mount Kilimanjaro (19,760 ft.), the highest mountain in Africa, which lies due East and from whose eternal snows the pravailing winds waft a delightfully cool and health-giving breeze.

Extract ID: 3399

See also

Arusha: A Brochure of the Northern Province and its Capital Town
Page Number: 07a
Extract Date: 1929

A "Close-up" of Coffee in Bloom

Extract ID: 3421

See also

Arusha: A Brochure of the Northern Province and its Capital Town
Page Number: 11a
Extract Date: 1929

A Four Year Old Plantation in Full Bloom

Extract ID: 3419

See also

Campbell, Alexander Empire in Africa
Extract Date: 1944

Coffee planters

now [1944] there are about 12,000 native planters and 200 European planters. There is a friction between the two. The Europeans have repeatedly alleged that the natives fail to keep down the pests and the weeds. A Government expert investigated this charge. He reported that in the Kilimanjaro area conditions on the native plantations were better than on the white plantations. The buyers evidently think so too, for before the war the natives were getting the same, and in some cases higher, prices than the whites.

Extract ID: 1375

See also

Nelson, Christopher Photos of Arusha
Extract Date: 1955

Meru Co-operative Union

My father (Anton Nelson) organised Meru Co-operative Union with 4000 Meru farmers, here seen with new purchase of 5-ton lorry to haul Coffee to warehouse. Seen at the Poli Baraza, local gov't headquarters. MCU in turn hired my father as their 'technical advisor'

Extract ID: 5883

See also

Nelson, Christopher Photos of Arusha
Extract Date: 1955

Mt Meru coffee farmers. Founding members of Meru Co-operative Union

Extract ID: 5856

See also

Financial Times (UK)
Extract Author: Gary Mead
Extract Date: 1997 December 9

Tanzania: Severe drought

Severe drought in the northern Coffee-growing areas around Kilimanjaro and Arusha - traditionally the areas for growing high-quality arabica beans - means the country's biggest foreign currency earner will be affected in 1997-98.

Total Coffee production in 1996-97 was 43,000 tonnes (worth about $95m); the northern crop was more than 16,500 tonnes, and is expected to see a 40 per cent decline in 1997-98.

Extract ID: 1460

See also

CD Encarta

Coffee, common name for trees of the genus Coffea

Coffee, common name for trees of the genus Coffea, of the family Rubiaceae, and also for their seeds (beans) and for the beverage brewed from them. Of the 30 or more species of the genus, only three are important: C. arabica, C. canephora (C. robusta), and C. liberica. The shrub or small tree, 4.6 to 6 m high at maturity, bears shiny green, ovate leaves that persist for three to five years and white, fragrant flowers that bloom for only a few days. During the six or seven months after appearance of the flower, the fruit develops, changing from light green to red and, ultimately, when fully ripe and ready for picking, to deep crimson. The mature fruit, which resembles a cherry, grows in clusters attached to the limb by very short stems, and it usually contains two seeds, or beans, surrounded by a sweet pulp.

1. Production

The soil in which Coffee is grown must be rich, moist, and absorbent enough to accept water readily, but sufficiently loose to allow rapid drainage of excess water. The best soil is composed of leaf mold, other organic matter, and disintegrated volcanic rock. Although Coffee trees are damaged easily by frost, they are cultivated in cooler regions. The growing temperatures range from 13 to 26C. Altitudes of Coffee plantations range from sea level to the tropical frost level, about 1800 m. C. robusta and C. liberica grow best at altitudes below 900 m; C. arabica flourishes at the higher altitudes. The seeds are planted directly in the field or in specially prepared nurseries. In the latter case, young selected plants are transplanted later to the fields. Commercial fertilisers are used extensively to promote the growth of stronger, healthier trees with heavier yields. Both the trees and the fruit are subject to insect infestation and microbial diseases, which may be controlled by spraying and proper agricultural management.

2. Harvesting

The Coffee tree produces its first full crop when it is about 5 years old. Thereafter it produces consistently for 15 or 20 years. Some trees yield 0.9 to 1.3 kg of marketable beans annually, but 0.45 kg is considered an average annual yield. Two methods of harvesting are used. One is based on selective picking; the other involves shaking the tree and stripping the fruit. Beans picked by the first technique are generally processed, if water is available, by the so-called wet method, in which the beans are softened in water, depulped mechanically, fermented in large tanks, washed again, and finally dried in the open or in heated, rotating cylinders. The so-called dry method, used generally for beans harvested by the second technique, entails only drying the beans and removing the outer coverings. In either case the final product, called green Coffee, is sorted by hand or machine to remove defective beans and extraneous material and is then graded according to size.

3. Characteristics

Coffee contains a complex mixture of chemical components of the bean, some of which are not affected by roasting. Other compounds, particularly those related to the aroma, are produced by partial destruction of the green bean during roasting. Chemicals extracted by hot water are classified as non-volatile taste components and volatile aroma components. Important non-volatiles are caffeine, trigonelline, chlorogenic acid, phenolic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and minerals. Important volatiles are organic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters, amines, and mercaptans. The principal physiological effects of Coffee are due to caffeine, an alkaloid that acts as a mild stimulant.

4. History

Exactly where and when Coffee was first cultivated is not known, but some authorities believe that it was grown initially in Arabia near the Red Sea about AD 675. Coffee cultivation was rare until the 15th and 16th centuries, when extensive planting of the tree occurred in the Yemen region of Arabia. The consumption of Coffee increased in Europe during the 17th century, prompting the Dutch to cultivate it in their colonies. In 1714 the French succeeded in bringing a live cutting of a Coffee tree to the island of Martinique in the West Indies. This single plant was the genesis of the great Coffee plantations of Latin America.

Extract ID: 1285
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