Name ID 194
Rohde, Rick and Hilhorst,Thea A profile of environmental change in the Lake Manyara Basin, Tanzania
Page Number: 08 (footnote #2)
One of the best sources of documents of the Lake Manyara area is to be found in the East Africa Collection and the Fosbrooke Collection, both housed within the Library of the University of Dar es Salaam. Rhodes House Library in Oxford holds a collection of photographs, diaries and reports by the geographer Clement Gillman who worked in this area sporadically during the 1920s and 1930s. It also holds many similar documents by other authors who worked in Tanganyika before Independence.
Extract Author: Laurence Gilman
Page Number: 2004 09 27
I am trying to find out how gilman's point near the summit of mount kilimanjaro got its name. any information you might have would be greatly appreciated.
lansing, illinois u.s.a
As far as I can work out it was named after (or by) Clement Gillman, an engineer and geographer working in Tanganyika from about 1920 till his death in 1946.
He climbed the mountain in about 1921, and was the first to use " boiling point observations" to try to work out it's exact height. In 1923 he published "An Ascent of Kilimanjaro" in Geog. J. 61:1-27. (My source for this is the bibliography is John Readers book "Kilimanjaro").
The fact that Gillman's Point and Clement Gillman both have two L's also implies a connection (sorry if this means that, with one L, you may not have one).
However, I have found nothing concrete to positively state that the point was named after Clement Gillman, despite scanning as many books as possible the other evening.
I found a few more quotes relevant to Gillman, and hope to have them up on the web site in a few days, so check back to http://www.ntz.info/gen/n00194.html maybe in two weeks time. (or when the front page changes from "latest update in May" to "latest update in October")
Meanwhile, if you find out anything, I also would appreciate it if you could let me know.
thank you for your impressive efforts to inform me about the history of gilman's or Gillman's point, mount kilimanjaro. my server serves up both spellings with the limited information about the point.
i did get one photograph from an internet article written by a climber whose e-mail address is ***. in the photograph, david is standing next to a sign at gilman's point with the name on the sign containing one "l." i have written to him to see if he might have any information about gilman (Gillman), and if the name on the sign was written by a climber who did not know the accurate spelling of the name. [photo here ]
also, i received an e-mail from florence maiko, who conducts guided tours of kilimanjaro. florence, whose e-mail address is ***, said she understood gilman (with one "l") was a missionary who climbed the mountain, but could volunteer no other information. your wonderful articles on Clement Gillman are the most precise, but should you run into anything else that might point toward a rev. gilman with a penchant for climbing kilimanjaro, please let me know. one again, thank you for taking the time and trouble in helping me with this geneaological quest.
Extract Author: Brian Hoyle
Page Number: 2008 07 12
I came across your various entries re Clement Gillman by accident and thought I'd contribute. I am the author of a 400-page biography entitled 'Gillman of Tanganyika, 1882-1946: the life and work of a pioneer geographer', published in 1987 by Gower.
Some of your correspondents seem to know about this book (now out of print, but available in libraries). The book deals among much else with the naming of Gillman's Point. Gillman reached this point on the crater rim on 19 October 1921 and, although he did not continue to the summit,the climb was regarded as the first successful attempt on the mountain after it came within British territory in 1919.
Gillman later objected to the naming of the point, but actually rather liked it. It is, of course, Gillman's Point, with two lls. For further details see my book, pp 165-67, which includes a photograph of Gillman standing at the Point.
Dundas, Charles Kilimanjaro and its People
Page Number: 24
There has been much dispute as to the actual height of Kibo's summit, which was measured by various travellers who all obtained different estimates. According to British topographers engaged on the boundary Commission the height was determined at 19,318, but as Meyer points out, they were never able to see the topmost peak which is invisible from below; German members of the Commission, however, arrived at an altitude of a little less than that. Meyer's own aneroid readings gave an altitude of 60 ms. more than the height observed of the British topographers. So far as I am aware the altitude was never ascertained by boiling point observations until 1921 when Mr. C. Gillman scaled the crater rim, and though I have not his figures, I believe that he found the correct measurement to be some 60 ms. or 105 feet less than Meyer's computation gave. Whatever the exact altitude may be, the highest point is over 19,000 feet above sea-level, and is thus the highest in Africa.
Howgego, Raymond John Gertrude Emily Benham (1867-1938) English mountaineer, traveller and collector
Page Number: 4
Extract Date: 1909
Note: Benham’s ascent of Mount Kilimanjaro in 1909 should alone have written her into the record books, but none of the histories of Kilimanjaro mention her name. That she could have completed the ascent is beyond doubt, her skill as a mountaineer exceeding that of many of her male counterparts.
It is generally assumed that a certain Frau (Clara?) von Ruckteschell was the first woman to reach the summit in February 1914, in the company of Lieutenant Walter von Ruckteschell (1882-1941), the St Petersburg-born army officer and artist.
The first British woman to achieve this distinction, in 1927, is recorded as the twenty-two-year-old Londoner, Sheila Macdonald. Unfortunately, when Benham first saw the report of Macdonald's ascent in The Times, Benham was in the West Indies and the newspaper was already several weeks old. By that time Benham could not be troubled to contradict the report, leaving it to a friend to write to The Times regarding her ascent eighteen years earlier.
The first British male to complete the ascent, despite numerous earlier failed attempts, appears to have been the celebrated geographer Clement Gillman (1882-1946). Gillman possibly made his first assault on the mountain as early as 1909, the same date as Benham, but he is better known for his successful ascent of 1921.
Howgego, Raymond John Gertrude Emily Benham (1867-1938) English mountaineer, traveller and collector
Page Number: 8
Extract Date: 1909
Benham’s ascent of Mount Kilimanjaro should alone have written her into the record books, but few of the histories of the mountain even mention her name.
Attempts to climb the mountain by all-male parties had started back in the 1860s, but it was not until 6 October 1889 that a team under the direction of Hans Meyer reached the summit of what was called ‘Kaiser-Wilhelm-Spitze’, now known as Kibo.
Climate change has rendered the mountain far more accessible to modern climbers than it was in the early 1900s, when snow lay thickly on its peaks and climbers could quite easily sacrifice their lives to the sudden blizzards that could sweep without warning across the notorious higher slopes.
It is generally assumed that a certain Frau (Clara?) von Ruckteschell was the first woman on the mountain when, in February 1914, she accompanied the St Petersburg-born army officer and artist, Lieutenant Walter von Ruckteschell (1882-1941). It appears that the Von Rukteschells failed to reach the Kibo summit.
The first British woman generally recognised as having achieved this distinction was the twenty-two-year-old Londoner, Sheila Macdonald (later Mrs Sheila Combe), who on 31 July 1927 reached the summit of Kibo in the company of William C. West, a member of the Alpine Club.
The first British male to complete the ascent, despite numerous earlier failed attempts, appears to have been the celebrated geographer Clement Gillman (1882-1946). Gillman possibly made his first assault on the mountain as early as 1909, about the same time as Benham, but apparently did not reach the summit until 1921.
Unfortunately, when Benham first saw the report of Macdonald’s ascent in The Times, she was in the West Indies and the newspaper was already several weeks old. By that time she could hardly be troubled to contradict the report, leaving it to a friend to inform the newspaper of her ascent eighteen years earlier.
This friend, whom Benham had met in Nigeria in 1913 and was possibly the colonial officer Selwyn Grier, wrote to The Times under the pseudonym ‘West African’, reporting Benham’s ascent and commenting briefly on her 1913 crossing of Africa. A somewhat belated account of Benham’s ascent of Kilimanjaro was carried by a brief article in the Daily Mail in February 1928.
However, in 1931 a certain Colonel E.L. Strutt wrote to The Times supporting Sheila Macdonald’s claim to have been the first woman to conquer the peak, stating: ‘Miss Gertrude Benham, about 1911 [sic], reached the rim of the crater – some two-three hours below the summit – and never claimed to have gone any higher’. In fact Strutt was perfectly justified in passing the accolade to Macdonald.
Benham had reached the edge of the crater now known as Mawenzi (5149 metres or 16,890 feet), which is the second highest of Kilimanjaro’s three peaks. Rather than being, as Benham put it, ‘not much difference in height’, the higher peak, Kibo, stands at 5895 metres or 19,340 feet, and nowadays involves a challenging ascent over lose open scree. Benham might have accomplished this, given another day, but modern climbers prefer to make the final assault at night or in the early morning when the scree is frozen together.
Africa Travel Resource Kilimanjaro
Page Number: 05a
Although Meyer and Purtscheller laid the trail for further ascents on Kilimanjaro, there was not an instant queue of would-be climbers. It wasn't until 1912, over 20 years later, when a path from Marangu was established and the first huts at Mandera and Horombo were built by Dr. E Forster for the newly formed German Kilimanjaro Mountain Club, that activity began in earnest.
The outbreak of war in 1918 however delayed further expeditions and the building of the Kibo Hut. The year 1929 saw the next stage in the opening up of the mountain with the formation of The Mountain Club of East Africa (now The Kilimanjaro Mountain Club). Founded by C. Gillman, N.Rice, P Ungerer and Dr.Reusch. The Kibo Hut was finally completed in 1932, hotels began to organise safaris onto the mountain and the public began to reach Gillman's Point with a few of the more hardy going on to the summit.
Melville Memorial Lecture
These surveys, the first of their kind in Africa to cover a whole country were published after the war and have recently been republished as they are still the basic source of essential natural resources data for the country. There are two volumes and accompanying maps: "The Soils, Vegetation and Traditional Agriculture of Zambia" Volume 1 Central and Western Zambia, Volume II by C.G. Trapnell and J.N. Clothier and C.G. Trapnell respectively.
This work led Professor Hugh Bunting (Professor Emeritus of Agricultural Botany, University of Reading) in a Tropical Agricultural Association Melville Memorial Lecture to describe Trapnell along with others including Geoffrey Milne, Clement Gillman and John Phillips as "Giants who walked the earth in East and Southern Africa in earlier years."
Internet Web Pages
Extract Date: 1936
The Royal Scottish Geographical Society
Medalists and Award Winners
Centenary Medal (The Society's Research Medal, renamed the Centenary Medal in 1988)
In recognition of outstanding contributions in the field of Geographical enquiry and the development of Geography as a discipline.
1936 Clement Gillman
Gillman, Clement An Annotated List of Ancient and Modern Indigenous Stone Structures in Eastern Africa
Page Number: 51
Extract Date: 1915
In 1915 Arning came across a tomb in the steppe below Ngare-Nairobi at the southwestern foot of Kilimanjaro, which was revealed when a military trench was dug. This site is probable the same as that from which Landgrebe, a farmer living close by, collected quite a small museum of stone bowls and perforated stone rings between 1925 and 1935.
.... After Landgrebe's internment in 1939 I [Gillman] made every effort to secure his collections, which filled a large show-case in his dwelling house, for the Dar-es-Salaam museum, but unfortunately the Custodian of Enemy Property could find no trace of them.
Spear, Thomas Mountain Farmers, Moral Economies of Land and Agricultural Development in Arusha and Meru
Page Number: 182
Extract Date: 1940~
a British Engineer in Tanzania for some 20 years, was a seasoned and critical observer. ... was scathing in his criticism of the settlers.
1942 Publishes: Gillman, Clement C. A Short History of the Tanganyika Railways
1943 Publishes: Gillman, Clement Diaries, correspondence and papers, 1905-43
On the editorial committee of TNR
Tanganyika Notes and Records No. 22
Page Number: 1
Officially he [Clement Gillman] was concerned first with railway engineering,then with water supply; unofficially mainly with geography in all its forms, particularly human geography. He had lived in Tanganyika longer than most non-natives, loved the Territory sincerely and did his utmost to direct development on sound lines. His only enemies were those who advocated this or that scheme without due investigation, his perpetual cry being the necessity of 'stock-taking' of all the natural resources.
Died while travelling by air from Dar es Salaam to Moshi. TNR quotes the obit in the Tanganyika Standard, initialed by D.R.G.
Extract Author: Chris Stylianou
Page Number: 2008 09 05
Extract Date: 5 Oct 1946
Clement Gillman is buried in the Moshi Cemetery as to is my Godfather Christopher Kikkidis His inscription on his tombstone is a inspiration.
TO THE MEMORY OF
26th NOV 1882 - 5th OCT.1946
Who lead a commonsense and therefore happy life because he stubbornly refused to be bamboozled by his female relations.
By his scientific friends and the rulers Spiritual and secular of the society into which without his consent he was born
With his permission I too would just a spirited tombstone.
PS, a few days later.
As a matter of interest the Grave, as with the rest of the grave yard, with the exception of the South African war graves is a shambles. I will admit I haven't been to Moshi for a few years now so maybe things may have changed who knows.
The grave yard has huge historical significance as the first person to identify Tanzanite as a Gemstone Manuel D Souza of Goa is also buried their.
I've just been looking at his biography, and see no reference to the grave.
But it says that he died on a flight from Dar es Salaam to Moshi - "with his pencil in his hand and his notebook on his knee, within sight of Kilimanjaro, the mountain he knew so well."
Extract Author: Andrea Lewis
Page Number: 2008 03 02
I came across your page while researching my great grandfather. Clement Gillman. You may be interested in his biography; Gillman of Tanganyika. 1882-1946. The Life and Work of a Pioneer Geographer. By B.S.Hoyle.