Rinderpest

Name ID 526

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1880's

A viral disease which affects ruminants

A viral disease which affects ruminants. It occurs naturally in Asia, and was introduced to Africa in the 1880s. Immunity can be acquired, provided the animal survives a year.

Extract ID: 865

See also

Spear, Thomas Mountain Farmers, Moral Economies of Land and Agricultural Development in Arusha and Meru

Clearing Mount Meru

Arusha and Meru had cleared and settled most of the southern slopes of Meru from 4000 to 5300 feet by the 1880s, when a series of disasters swept across northern Tanzania. Bovine pleuropneumonia and Rinderpest devastated the herds of pastoral Maasai, driving them into the mountains to seek refuge; smallpox spread rapidly along the trade routes recently forged up the Pangani Valley; and drought and killing famine blanketed the area, especially during the years 1883-6, 1891-2 and 1897-1900, ...

Extract ID: 1171

See also

Koponen, Juhani Population: A Dependent Variable
Extract Date: 1890's

Famine and smallpox

The catastrophes of the 1890s began with the great Rinderpest panzootic in 1890. Spreading southward from the Horn of Africa, Rinderpest swept over the country like bushfire, killing cattle and game. The estimate first put forward by the German lieutenant, who said that 90 per cent of Tanganyika’s cattle and half of its wild animals perished from Rinderpest, may well be roughly accurate.

Famine and Smallpox followed [the Rinderpest], especially among peoples who depended on cattle. While the endemicity of Smallpox was no doubt maintained by caravan traffic, which had grown up with the establishment of colonialism, another factor also involved in the Smallpox epidemics of the 1890s was the increased mobility of people who were searching for food and security. The pastoral Maasai, of whom perhaps two-thirds died, suffered the worst. Northwestern Tanzania was also hit by Smallpox, particularly Karagwe. In the mid-1890s German doctors claimed that ‘every second’ African had a pock-marked face.

Extract ID: 960

See also

Kjekshus, Helge Ecology Control and Economic Development in East African History
Extract Date: 1890's

Rinderpest removed the Masai and their cattle

The Rinderpest removed the Masai and their cattle from the crater in the 1890s

Extract ID: 867

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1890-2

Rinderpest struck East Africa in 1890

Rinderpest struck East Africa in 1890, and in two years 95 percent of the buffalo and wildebeest there had died. So began a series of events of such profound ecological importance that the repercussions are still being felt today. [see also under Maasai for the efects on them]

Extract ID: 868

See also

Spear, Thomas Mountain Farmers, Moral Economies of Land and Agricultural Development in Arusha and Meru

Clearing Mount Meru

Arusha and Meru had cleared and settled most of the southern slopes of Meru from 4000 to 5300 feet by the 1880s, when a series of disasters swept across northern Tanzania. Bovine pleuropneumonia and Rinderpest devastated the herds of pastoral Maasai, driving them into the mountains to seek refuge; smallpox spread rapidly along the trade routes recently forged up the Pangani Valley; and drought and killing famine blanketed the area, especially during the years 1883-6, 1891-2 and 1897-1900, ...

Extract ID: 1171

See also

Spear, Thomas Mountain Farmers, Moral Economies of Land and Agricultural Development in Arusha and Meru

Clearing Mount Meru

Arusha and Meru had cleared and settled most of the southern slopes of Meru from 4000 to 5300 feet by the 1880s, when a series of disasters swept across northern Tanzania. Bovine pleuropneumonia and Rinderpest devastated the herds of pastoral Maasai, driving them into the mountains to seek refuge; smallpox spread rapidly along the trade routes recently forged up the Pangani Valley; and drought and killing famine blanketed the area, especially during the years 1883-6, 1891-2 and 1897-1900, ...

Extract ID: 1171

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1917-18

further outbreaks of Rinderpest

further outbreaks of Rinderpest

Extract ID: 869

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1923

further outbreaks of Rinderpest

further outbreaks of Rinderpest

Extract ID: 870

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1925

milder strain of rinderpest appears

milder strain of Rinderpest appears, and animals begin to acquire immunity

Extract ID: 871

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1938-41

further outbreaks of Rinderpest

further outbreaks of Rinderpest. In each case the disease spread from northern Tanzania southward.

Extract ID: 872

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1955-6

no outbreaks detected in wild species

no outbreaks detected in wild species

Extract ID: 873

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1957-9

reappeared with heavy mortality

reappeared with heavy mortality

Extract ID: 874

See also

Sinclair, A.R.E and Norton-Griffiths, M (Editors) Serengeti: Dynamics of an Ecosystem
Extract Date: 1962

Last year that rinderpest was detected in wildebeest

Last year that Rinderpest was detected in wildebeest of the Serengeti, Mara, and Ngorongoro, and 1963 was the last year for buffalo.

Extract ID: 875

See also

Melewas, Dr J.N. Rinderpest in Tanzania: clinical suspicion
Extract Date: feb 1997

Rinderpest in Tanzania: clinical suspicion

RINDERPEST IN TANZANIA
clinical suspicion

Emergency report

Text of a fax received on 14 February 1997 from Dr J.N. Melewas, Chief Veterinary Officer, Dar es Salaam:

Nature of diagnosis: disease surveillance and clinical diagnosis.

Date of initial detection of animal health incident: early January 1997.

Estimated date of first infection: October 1996.

LocationNumber of outbreaks
north of the road from Taveta to Ngorongoro, in Arusha region and part of Kilimanjaro region (4o S - 35o to 38o E)not determined

Description of affected population: suspected cases have occurred in pastoral herds which constantly migrate across the international border in search of pasture and water during droughts. Morbidity and mortality rates in cattle have not yet been determined and no indication of the infection in wildlife has been found so far.

Total number of animals in the affected zone: ± 1,000,000 head of cattle.

Diagnosis: clinical signs include fever, anorexia, lachrymation, oral lesions, diarrhoea and deaths, but detection of the disease is complicated by the effects of severe drought. Disease surveillance carried out in Northern Tanzania during 1997 has revealed the presence of a syndrome in cattle highly suggestive of rinderpest.

Control measures during reporting period: until laboratory investigations have been completed, action is being taken on the assumption that it is rinderpest. Action taken is aimed at confirming the provisional diagnosis, detecting infected herds, stopping transmission immediately and demonstrating elimination of the disease.

- Infected zone: immediate ring vaccination is being done in the districts of Monduli, Arumeru and Hai, north of the road from Taveta to Ngorongoro.

- Surveillance zone: intensive surveillance consists of those parts of Monduli, Arusha and Hai districts, south of the road from Taveta to Ngorongoro, and the surrounding districts of Ngorongoro, Mbulu, Babati, Karatu, Simanjiro, Same and Mwanga.

Composition of these zones may be alterered depending on the findings of surveillance and diagnosis. A systematic disease search is going on for a more precise definition of the infected area.

Systematic vaccination started in January 1997 and is proceeding in the districts of Rombo, Hai, Monduli, Arumeru adjoining the border with Kenya and will extend to the rest of the border districts from lake Victoria to the Indian Ocean.

Extract ID: 1417
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