Tanzania

Name ID 605

external link

See also

BBC internet news
Extract Date: 10 jan 2001

Timeline: Tanzania

A chronology of key events:

1498 - Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama visits Tanzanian coast.

1506 - Portuguese succeed in controlling most of the East African coast.

1699 - Portuguese ousted from Zanzibar by Omani Arabs.

1884 - German Colonisation Society begins to acquire territory on the mainland.

1886 - Britain and Germany sign an agreement allowing the Germans to set up a sphere of influence over mainland Tanzania, except for a narrow piece of territory along the coast which remained the authority of the sultan of Zanzibar, while Britain enjoys a protectorate over Zanzibar.

1905-06 - Indigenous Maji Maji revolt suppressed by German troops.

British rule

1916 - British, Belgian and South African troops occupy most of German East Africa.

1919 - League of Nations gives Britain a mandate over Tanganyika - today's mainland Tanzania.

1929 - Tanganyika African Association founded.

1946 - United Nations converts British mandate over Tanganyika into a trusteeship.

1954 - Julius Nyerere and Oscar Kambona transform the Tanganyika African Association into the Tanganyika African National Union.

Independence

1961 - Tanganyika becomes independent with Julius Nyerere as prime minister.

1962 - Tanganyika becomes a republic with Nyerere as president.

1963 - Zanzibar becomes independent.

1964 - Sultanate of Zanzibar overthrown by Afro-Shirazi Party in a violent, left-wing revolution; Tanganyika and Zanzibar merge to become Tanzania, with Nyerere as president and the head of the Zanzibar government and leader of the Afro-Shirazi Party, Abeid Amani Karume, as vice-president.

1967 - Nyerere issues the Arusha Declaration, which calls for egalitarianism, socialism and self-reliance.

1977 - The Tanganyika African National Union and Zanzibar's Afro-Shirazi Party merge to become the Party of the Revolution, which is proclaimed as the only legal party.

1978 - Ugandans temporarily occupy a piece of Tanzanian territory.

1979 - Tanzanian forces invade Uganda, occupying the capital, Kampala, and help to oust President Idi Amin.

Multiparty politics

1985 - Nyerere retires and is replaced by the president of Zanzibar, Ali Mwinyi.

1992 - Constitution amended to allow multiparty politics.

1995 - Benjamin Mkapa chosen as president in Tanzania's first multiparty election.

1999 October - Julius Nyerere dies.

2000 - Mkapa elected for a second term, winning 72% of the vote.

Extract ID: 3107

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 12

Slavery

Slavery always existed in Africa as part of a social system but trade started with Arab raiders arriving around the 9th century to take Africans to markets in Mesopotamia, India, Persia and Arabia. In the 19th century slave trading was a flourishing commercial practice with regular and massive deportations organised by Arab slavers helped by local tribes such as the Nyamwezi who became their redoubtable partners. The most renowned Arab trader was Tippu Tip (Hemedi bin Muhammad el Marjebi), born in Zanzibar, who at 18 began slave and ivory trading between the interior and coastal towns, and by 1880 he had built a large commercial empire between the Upper Congo, Lake Tanganyika and Bagamoyo on the coast, where the slaves were shipped-off to Zanzibar for sale to foreign merchants. In East Africa all the main routes, such as the above, lay in Tanganyika: a route in the North passed through Karagwe and North of Lake Victoria and divided to head north to Bunyoro and north-east towards Buganda. A less frequented route in the south exploited by the Yao, led from Lake Nyasa to Kilwa.

The movement to abolish the slave trade started in England after publication of John Wesley's Thought upon Slavery in 1774 followed by Scottish economist Adam Smith's work The Wealth of Nations published in 1776. The latter laid to rest once and for all the 200 year-old economic belief that slave labour was cheaper than free men's work.

It still took more than a century for Slavery to be totally abolished. The Moresby Treaty in 1822, the Hamerton Treaty in 1845 and finally on 5th June 1873 the treaty signed between the British Consul in Zanzibar, Sir John Kirk, and Sultan Barghash made slave trading illegal. By 1889 all former slaves were declared free men and the status of slave was abolished in 1907 in British East Africa. Compensation claims, the last step to offset the intricate human-economic impact brought about by the abolition, were not considered after 31 December 1911.

In Tanganyika the status lasted another 15 years until the end of German rule when the country became a British Protectorate in 1922.

Extract ID: 216

external link

See also

World History at KMLA
Page Number: 09b

Population since 1961

Since independence, the population of Tanzania has more than doubled. The economic development was seriously affected by the oil crisis of the 1970es, as well as by a drop in world market prices for plantation crops. Tanzania economically lags behind it's northern, non-socialist neighbours Kenya and Uganda.

There is a separatist organization seeking the independence of Zanzibar & Pemba.

Tanzania's Population, 1960-1990

1960 10,026,000

1970 13,513,000

1980 18,867,000

1990 25,635,000

Extract ID: 3517

See also

Amin, Mohamed and Willetts, Duncan Spectrum Guide to Tanzania
Extract Date: 1961

National Anthem

Mungu ibariki Africa
Wabariki viongozi wake
Hekima, umoja, na amani
Hizi ni ngao zetu
Afrika na watu wake

Ibariki Afrika
Ibariki Afrika
Tubariki watoto wa Afrika

Mungu ibariki Tanzania
Dumisha uhuru na umoja
Wake kwa waume ma watoto
Mungu ibariki
Tanzania na watu wake

Ibariki Tanzania
Ibariki Tanzania
Tubariki watoto wa Tanzania
God bless Africa
Bless its leaders
Let wisdom, unity
and peace be the shield of
Africa, and its people.

Bless Africa
Bless Africa
Bless the children of Africa

God bless Tanzania
Grant eternal freedom and unity
to its sons and daughters
God bless
Tanzania and its people

Bless Tanzania
Bless Tanzania
Bless the children of Tanzania

Extract ID: 1406

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxiv
Extract Date: 1964-1966

foreign policy difficulties

Tanzania experiences foreign policy difficulties with West Germany over an East German presence in Zanzibar, and with the US over an alleged plot to overthrow the Tanzanian government.

Extract ID: 1254

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxiv
Extract Date: 1964 October 29

The country is renamed

Following consultations, the country is renamed the United Republic of Tanzania.

Extract ID: 1253

See also

Lindblad, Lisa and Sven-Olof The Serengeti; Land of Endless Space
Extract Date: 1977

Tanzania closed its borders with Kenya

Tanzania closed its borders with Kenya

Extract ID: 1011

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 08f
Extract Date: 1977

East African Community

Meanwhile, the East African Community disintegrated as Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania opted for different social systems, leading to the closure of the Tanzania - Kenya border in 1977.

Extract ID: 4036

See also

Tactical Pilotage Chart (TPC) M-5A

Enlargement of Northern TZ

Extract ID: 3977

See also

Tactical Pilotage Chart (TPC) M-5A

Full Map

Extract ID: 3976

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxvii
Extract Date: 1990 August 1

big game hunting

As part of an effort to encourage foreign-exchange earnings from tourism, Tanzania rescinds a 17-year ban on big game hunting and permits limited shooting between August and November. Prohibitions remain in place against hunting elephant, lion and rhinoceros.

Extract ID: 1255

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxviii
Extract Date: 1992 March 5

lifts its ban on elephant hunting

Tanzania lifts its ban on elephant hunting

Extract ID: 1256

See also

Operational Navigation Chart (ONC) M-5

Enlargement of Northern TZ

Extract ID: 3972

See also

Operational Navigation Chart (ONC) M-5

Full Map

Extract ID: 3971

See also

The Economist
Extract Date: 1996 November 2

Tanzania. A land of potential

© 1996 The Economist Newspaper Limited. All rights reserved

YES Tanzania has potential. The issue is as it has been for years how to realise it. Three decades ago Julius Nyerere the country's liberation leader declared-and in those days much of the world believed such things-that state ownership and African socialism were the way. In the late 1940s British officials eager to get their colony to pay its way had dreamed up the great groundnut flop (the ground looked fine the nuts didn't). Sixty years earlier German colonists had pushed into the area no doubt enthused by its Potential andbefore them Arab slavers had extracted a great deal of potential and dragged it down to the coast for sale. Maybe the early inhabitants of Olduvai Gorge looked out across the plains and grunted the equivalent in eloquent Palaeolithic.

Well they might. Four times as big as Britain but even now with only 30m people the country has huge fertile zones still untouched. It has a mass of minerals including gold and diamonds. To tourists it offers Africa's two largestgame parks its highest mountain Kilimanjaro and the beautiful island of Zanzibar. But somehow the potential remains in the ground. Officially GDP per person is about $ 90.

As a symbol of past failure a modern building stands across the bay from Dar es Salaam empty and boarded-up. It was the school of ideology where Tanzania's brightest drank in the spirit of African socialism. Today a year in office President Benjamin Mkapa follows the party line of the IMF the World Bank and foreign-aid donors: a tight budget a slimmer civil service privatisation and free-marketry. If the IMF board which meets next week agrees that Tanzania is hitting its macro-economic targets it will reward him with $ 230m in soft loans. Other donors may release $ 1.2 billion and think about forgiving some of Tanzania's $ 7.5 billion debt.

Mr Mkapa inherited a mess. His predecessor Hassan Mwinyi began to free the economy but lost control of government spending and broke with the IMF and the Bank two years ago. Mr Mkapa also inherited a culture of corruption. Joseph Warioba a former prime minister whom he appointed to head a commission of investigation says it is widespread at all levels. Can Mr Mkapa seen by most people as honest but more of a civil servant than a politician cure this national disease?

His own finance minister Simon Mbilinyi has been under fire for some curious tax exemptions to importers of cooking oil. A parliamentary committee investigated these and urged Mr Mkapa to call his minister to account. Sack him say many people though that would not be easy just as Mr Mbilinyi is completing delicate negotiations with the IMF. Not that he did anything unheard-of: his predecessors handed out exemptions with such abandon that few big local businessmen pay tax at all.

Yet Tanzania's failure to develop may have deeper roots than either Mr Nyerere's self-help socialism or the help-yourself corruption which-not unlinkedto it-has followed. Tanzania has a culture of survival rooted in the avoidance of risk whether in subsistence farming-the occupation of most citizens-or bureaucracy. Iddi Simba the parliamentarian heading the committee that looked into Mr Mbilinyi's doings argues: 'Corruption is not as important as the mentality of our people. They must change from what they were to what they want to be. They don't know how to manage a capitalist system.' Many others echo him-not least foreign would-be investors.

Extract ID: 1443

See also

Schneppen, Heinz Why Kilimanjaro is in Tanzania
Page Number: 35
Extract Date: 1996

Tanzania's borders

It is not the task of this essay to take stock of a colonial past where Germans and Tanzanians shared for 25 years a common history. However this period may be judged, it seems that Tanzania's borders are the most positive heritage the Germans have left to the citizens of this country.

Extract ID: 4372

See also

Hoopoe Maps

New Map of Northern Tanzania

Extract ID: 3966

See also

The Times (UK)
Extract Date: 1999 May 25

Service of Commemoration and Thanksgiving

Service of Commemoration and Thanksgiving for the work of the Colonial and Overseas Civil Services, at Westminster Abbey .. took place today

Extract ID: 1016

See also

Africa News Online
Extract Date: 1999 November 29

Tanzania Embarks On 100 Million Tree-Planting Campaign

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency

The Tanzanian government has directed district and provincial administrators to effectively implement an ambitious national tree planting campaign launched by President Benjamin Mkapa in April.

The campaign is aimed at re-greening the country by planting 100 million Trees by June. Tanzania currently loses between 300,000 and 400,000 hectares of forest annually due to rampant tree felling.

Forest cover destruction is particularly alarming in the rural areas where shifting cultivation and livestock keeping form the key modes of life. The country's central and north-western areas are already threatened with accelerating desertification.

The minister of state in the vice president's office, Edward Lowassa, issued a directive 10 November to all district commissioners to ensure a thorough implementation of the campaign.

'Planted seedlings must be taken care of to make sure that a large percentage of them thrives. Botanists should advise the villagers on suitable species of Trees for each region,' he said.

The vice president's office is co-ordinating the campaign launched 10 April by Mkapa in Mwanza region, one of the areas affected by chronic drought.

Media tycoon Reginald Mengi, who is chairman of the National Environmental Management Council, has backed the exercise with personal financial support by rewarding successful environmental groups with cash.

Last week he gave 112,000 shillings (about 140 US dollars) to a family that planted 3,600 Trees around their home area. Some 15 million Trees have been planted in Mengi's native Kilimanjaro region through his initiative in the past five years.

Similar campaigns are going on throughout the country in urban and rural areas, including refugee camps.

The minister for community development, women affairs and children, Mary Nagu, recently urged Burundian refugees in the western region of Kigoma to stop felling Trees and instead join the government's green campaign.

Like their Tanzanian hosts, the refugees rely heavily on wood fuel for their daily energy requirements. Wood is by far the most important source of energy in Tanzania, exceeding 90 percent of the total national energy supply.

Apart from wood fuels demand, much of deforestation in the country is due to unsuitable agricultural methods and over-grazing. These activities transform natural forests into marginal lands and, as a result, land degradation and even desertification are accelerating.

Extract ID: 1456

See also

Africa News Online
Extract Author: Nicodemus Odhiambo
Extract Date: 1999 December 16

Thousands Threatened With Acute Food Shortage In Tanzania

Copyright (c) 1999 Panafrican News Agency.

At least one million people are faced with an acute food shortage in Tanzania due to the prevailing dry spell in several regions of the country.

In Singida, at least 150,000 are in need of emergency food aid while the number is four times in Shinyanga. The acting Singida regional commissioner, Martin Mgongolwa said, a deficit of 9,500 tonnes of food is imminent.

In Shinyanga 158,000 tonnes of grain would have to be sent to boost the available 395,000 tonnes of food needed to sustain the region's 2.53 million inhabitants.

Mgongolwa told reporters that more than 156,000 people in 142 villages have been affected by the drought in Singida and needed an emergency food aid.

The region, where rainfall is extremely unreliable, received 13,000 tonnes of food from the World Food Programme in 1998 'but this ran out in March,' he added.

Shinyanga's regional commissioner, Tumainieli Kiwelu, said the drought in the region was as a result of an accumulated food shortage owing to unfavourable weather conditions since 1997.

'Given a good yield, Shinyanga farmers produce up to 80 percent of the total food requirements in the region,' he said.

The region has only received an average rainfall of 500 millimeters, which cannot sustain a maize yield. The food shortage in Shinyanga and Singida became certain when the Food and Agricultural Organisation indicated that Tanzania would be facing the hardship despite favourable rains.

The organisation's report indicated that Tanzania's total cereal production in 1999 would reach 3.76 million tonnes, which is lower than that of 1998 by 10 percent.

Other factors contributing to the precarious food situation include an attack of Army Worms in Morogoro, Arusha and Kilimanjaro.

Tanzania imported over 550,000 tonnes of cereals in 1998 to curb a looming food shortage.

But the food deficit could not be avoided in 1999 and the Economic Intelligence Unit noted that Tanzania needed to import 600,000 tonnes of cereals to meet the country's food demands.

FAO and the World Food Programme have said Tanzania's Strategic Grain Reserve lacks the capacity to meet emergency food needs, as stocks have been progressively depleted and maintained below target.

Extract ID: 1458

See also

Africa News Online
Extract Date: 2000 January 7

Tourism fastest growing industry in Tanzania

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.

Tourism has been Tanzania's fastest growing sector in the past three years. Tourism figures show that about 480,000 tourists were received in the 1998/1999 financial year in Tanzania, a far cry from the 180,000 figure of 1991/1992.

Earnings from the sector rose from USD 94.7 million in 1991/1992 to over USD 515 million in 1998/1999. More than 30,000 Tanzanians have been employed in the sector. In last financial year (1998/1999) tourism accounted for 16.5 percent of GDP, higher than 7.5 percent in 1995/1996.

It is expected to be the sector whose steady growth will create more jobs and increase income this century, according to analysts.

The government is implementing the new national tourism policy that encourages people to invest in the industry and an integrated tourism master plan intending to guard tourism activities and development in the country.

According Mr. Ole Naiko, director of investment at the Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC), from 1990 to June last year, a total of 190 tourism projects have been approved by his centre, which is the government's agency for promoting investment.

However, despite the achievement, observer sees several challenges facing the industry in the new millennium as a business itself is so complex and delicate, touching almost every aspect of human and natural life. They want issues like poaching in the parks be controlled. The Kilimanjaro Park's Chief warden, Mr. Lorivi Ole Moirana says that last September 26 suspected poachers were arrested at the Park. 'Poachers and gangsters are threatening people and wildlife, properties and being destroyed and stolen,' he laments.

He want apart from intensifying security, infrastructure be developed to support the sector. However, the United States Agency for International Organization (USAID) has provided equipment worth 643,413 USD to help improve roads in national parks in the country.

The assistance coming as part of the Partnership Options for Resources use Innovation (PORI) project, being implemented by the African Wildlife Foundation.

An assistance goes to develop the infrastructure, which, according to Dr.

James Kahurananga, a PORI's senior project officer, finances various activities in the sector. All infrastructure is based on design guidelines prepared with assistance from the US Department of Interior (DOI), one of the partners in the project. The assistance goes to the Tarangire and Lake Manyara national parks, in the northern part of Tanzania.

The two were in last year expected to receive about 55,000 tourists each, about 10 percent of them Americans.

The arrival of the arrival of the tourists is expected to earn the two parks an income of about US $ 2.5 million.

Extract ID: 1473

See also

Africa News Online
Extract Date: 2000 January 14

Historical sites in Tanzania on verge of collapse

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.

Although the Minister for Tourism and Natural Resources Zakia Meghji witnessed more than 2000 tourists delight in Tanzania's natural heritage in the Mount Kilimanjaro Top 2000 Expedition, ancient sites with similar potential lay unattended.

Trusted with preserving Tanzania's cultural heritage, the department of antiquities under Minister Meghji is grossly under-staffed and under-funded.

'If we want to improve the department we must have the new approach,' says Mr. Donatus Kamamba, the acting director of antiquities.

He says despite the fact that the department has 117 sites to view all over the country, it has 63 workers only, mostly supporting staff.

According to him, not more than 10 are qualified individuals who can stay at a station and map out the strategies for development of the traditional legacy they are trusted to preserve.

'In the whole of Tanzania for example, there are only three qualified Architectural conservators, that is experts who deal with maintenance and preservation of old buildings,' says Mr. Kamamba, adding, 'at the department's headquarters in Dar Es Salaam, there is only one vehicle.'

He adds, the modest USD 30,000 budget the department projected last year to maintain all its stations was 'very moderate intended'

'At present the antiquities department is regarded as a unit, meant for serving a small area, which means that we get less staff, less facilities and less fund,' he laments.

Despite the efforts made by the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, to market Tanzania's attractions in oversees, there is no similar efforts being made to invest in the sector.

On his observation, a successful Mount Kilimanjaro Expedition, in which the Kilimanjaro National Park had pumped in USD 375, 000 equivalent in extensive preparations that has enabled it to net USD 750000, need to be replicated by other organizations.

The director says over 117 stations, only about 20 had at least enough staff and were attended to, with the rest either under-staffed or languishing unattended.

Kamamba notes that at present, the repair of the stations has been going on at the snails pace - about one station each year - due to lack of funds.

'At this rate, it will take almost 117 years to maintain all of them,' he says.

Among the transferred departments are the National Museum, the Antiquities Department, National Archives, Film Censorship Board, National Sports Council and National Art Council.

He alleges that his antiquities department has been marginalised while under the education ministry, for instance, in the budgets of the ministry from 1993 to 1998, 'no mention has been made of providing the department with workers and facilities.'

'Tourists cannot pay money to go to a place if it has no facilities,' he says, adding, 'There is basically no difference in natural heritage and cultural heritage in their potential for tourism.'

As tourists still stream towards Mount Kilimanjaro and to National Parks in the country, historical sites in Bagamoyo, Kilwa and many other parts in the country are, according to Mr. Kamamba, on the verge of total decline, he says.

Officials from the Tanzania Tourism Board and the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, have since 1997 been visiting various countries, mainly Canada, USA, Japan and Korea, to market the country's tourism products.

In Tanzania, the tourism sector is among the fastest growing and earners of sizable income, but receive less in terms of investment and incentives. (words 557)

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Extract ID: 1475

See also

Africa News Online
Extract Date: 2000 May 22

Germany Tour Operators Visits Tanzania

Dar Es Salaam - Tanzania will by the end of this year receive a total of 500,000 tourists from all over the world, the Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Ms. Zakia Meghji has told the visiting tour operators from Germany.

Speaking to eleven top tour operators from Germany who arrived here over the weekend, Ms Meghji said that increased of tourists in this year followed last year's campaigns conducted in various countries by the government to market Tanzania. In last year President Mkapa led a delegation in United States and Sweden to market Tanzania in areas of tourism and investment in general. The touring delegation have been invited by the Tanzania Tourist Board (TTB) and they are visiting tourist attractions in the northern circuit of Tanzania to assess potential resources which exist in the area.

According to the TTB branch controller in Arusha region, Ms. Mary Lwoga, the visiting tour operators would later promote Tanzania's attractions in Germany and other parts of Europe. In 1998 Tanzania received 22,000 tourists from Germany and the number increased to 25,000 in last year. Ms.

Lwoga said that about 30,000 tourists from Germany were expected to visit Tanzania this year. She said the invitation was part of the country's new strategies to market Tanzania in Europe and according to her, Tanzania's participation in the Annual Berlin International Tourism Exhibition has contributed significantly to attract tourists from Europe. Tourism is one of the upcoming promising industries in Tanzania. For several years Tanzania has developed and marketed less that 50 percent of her tourist potentials.

Most of the active tourist active areas, has been northern part of the country, leaving southern part undeveloped. Since three years ago the government has taken initiatives to take both internal and international campaigns to promote the sector, including attending international tour promotional forums, whose results have started to be seen. According to the ministry of Natural resources and Tourism, earnings from the tourism sector has surpassed by Tshs2.7 billion more in last year.

In last year the government was realized a total of Tshs11.2 billion from the projection of shillings 8.5 billion. The number of tourists increased to over 627,000 in 1999 from 482,331 in 1998. Tanzania is among the top three tourist destination in Africa. In 1998 Tanzania received 482, 331 tourists and ranked fifth in tourism earnings in the continent.

South Africa received 5, 981, 000 and ranked first among 20 tourist destinations in Africa. The visiting delegation represent the following companies; Reisezeit Touristik (Berlin), Ethiopia Airlines (Frankfurt), Ministerk Reisen (Berlin), Jambo Tanzania Reisen (Sundern), Safari Reisen (Berlin), Hauser Excursionen (Munich), Globertrotter Reisen (Munich), Frosch Touristik (Munich), Into Africa Reisen (Nuernberg), Chameleon Reisen (Berlin) and Moewe Jonathan Bildungsreisen (Frunckfurt). The visiting delegation is being collaborated by the Tanzanian counterparts organizations which include, Tanzania National Parks, Ethiopian Airlines, Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority, Momella Wildlife Lodge, Tarangire Safari Lodge, and Tanzania Hotelliers.

Extract ID: 1500

See also

Coulson, David and Campbell, Alex African Rock Art - Paintings and Engravings on Stone
Page Number: 133

Distribution of Rock Art in Eastern Africa

Extract ID: 4908

See also

BBC internet news
Extract Author: Jenny Cuffe
Extract Date: 29 January 2002

File on Four

BBC Radio 4

Tuesday 29 January 2002

Presented by Jenny Cuffe

In the run up to Christmas the Government found itself divided and under heavy criticism over its decision to approve the export of a £28 million air traffic control system to Tanzania.

Tanzania is one the world's poorest countries with a per capita income of little more than £200 a year. It's also one of only four countries to have seen some tangible benefit from the high profile initiative on debt relief which was trumpeted by the world's richest nations at a G7 meeting two years ago. The promise then was that $100 billion-worth of debt would be written off. So far only $18 billion has been, including $3 billion owed by Tanzania

As part of the deal, the Government in Tanzania has agreed to put in place a series of economic and social reforms agreed with the World Bank and the IMF. But there are critics of the conditions which have been imposed - not least because the Government in Dar es Salaam will have to take out new loans to fund some of the reforms.

One of their targets is to have all primary-aged children in schools with class sizes under 50in the next five years - and to abolish primary school fees. Meeting these demands will cost $600 million - almost half of which will come from a new loan from the World Bank.

So how far does the gesture on debt relief really go in addressing the fundamental problems caused by poverty in Tanzania? And where does the decision to buy a highly expensive radar system fit in to the plans for reform?

Extract ID: 3342

external link

See also

BBC internet news
Extract Date: 29 January, 2002

Tanzania responds to air traffic furore

The Tanzanian Government has defended its decision to buy a new air traffic control system from the United Kingdom. Tanzanian Foreign Minister Jakaya Kikwete tells the BBC's File on Four editor David Ross why he is puzzled by the furore.

The controversy over the contract hit the headlines towards the end of December.

There were even reports of splits in the UK cabinet, with ministers such as International Development Minister Clare Short angry at the government's decision to grant BAE Systems an export licence for the $39.5m (£28m) system.

Critics claim it is too expensive for Tanzania's needs and is intended for military as much as civilian use.

But, speaking on the BBC's File on 4 programme, Mr Kikwete maintains there was no need for the fuss.

We are not a department of the World Bank - we are a country and it's a bit insulting to suggest that we need to wait for the World Bank to prescribe what's best for us

Tanzanian Foreign Minister Jakaya Kikwete

"Our engineers prescribed the system which we required", he says.

"We put the contract out to tender, four companies competed and we got BAE Systems delivering to our specification. This is the system we wanted."

Which is fine except for the background against which the contract became public.

Debt relief

Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in Africa, and one of only four countries in the world to have had a portion of its international debt written off - a total of $3bn (£2.1bn) which will be discounted over the next 20 years.

The relief will make a healthy dent in Tanzania's total international borrowings of more than $7bn.

Tanzania: one of the poorest countries in Africa

It was confirmed only after the Government in Dar es Salaam signed an agreement with the World Bank to implement the conditions of a so-called Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP).

Under the PRSP specific targets will be met for improvements across a wide range of social issues.

These range from infant mortality and increased access to education and health, to the provision of more roads and clean water supplies.

'Insulting'

Critics of the air-traffic control deal say the $39.5m (£28m), borrowed at a reported interest rate of 4.9% from the UK's Barclays Bank, could have been better used to fund clinics or schools.

Even the World Bank has quietly demurred and is still reviewing the contract.

Foreign Minister Kikwete is adamant that it is not anyone else's business how his government elects to prioritise spending.

"We are not a department of the World Bank - we are a country and it's a bit insulting to suggest that we need to wait for the World Bank to prescribe what's best for us," Mr Kikwete said.

"The responsibility for Tanzania is in the hands of Tanzanians."

Benefits?

But the debate does not end with air traffic control and it raises fundamental questions about the overall benefits of the debt relief package.

Primary school education improved as part of debt package

One of the conditions to which the Tanzanian Government had to agree was greater access to education - all primary aged children will be in schools with class sizes under 50 in the next five years.

As part of that agreement, basic primary school fees have been abolished.

But the cost of these reforms will be $600m - and nearly half of that will have to be financed by further loans from the World Bank.

The government has also signed up to borrowing another $65 million from the Bank to fund agricultural improvement through a project which will provide subsidised seeds and fertiliser.

Critics question the wisdom of this. They say the project is modelled on a previous, smaller-scale scheme which collapsed and warn that it will do little to build a viable and sustainable agricultural sector.

In both these cases the Tanzanian Government hopes that its new borrowing will be paid for out of increases in gross domestic profit.

The World Bank and IMF predict that the necessary 6% growth in the country's economy is achievable.

But, for Kevin Watkins, Policy Director at Oxfam, the risk is that the benefits of debt relief will be wiped out by the government's need for further loans to fund reform.

"I think these are very fundamental questions. These are scarce financial resources and it's imperative that recipient governments are seen to direct those resources to areas where they will have a real impact on human development," Mr Watkins said.

Back in the foreign ministry, Mr Kikwete acknowledges a paradox in Tanzania's situation.

His government now needs to meet targets on social reform in order to qualify for help with its previous debt.

The spending on reform is likely to drive Tanzania further into debt.

But Mr kikwete says his country has little choice.

"What else do you do? If there were better conditions we would take them.

"But if these are the conditions, then this is the world we are in and this is the reality we have to understand. We are biting the bullet."

File on Four 4 is broadcast on Tuesday 29th January on BBC Radio 4 at 2000GMT and repeated on Sunday at 1700GMT.

Extract ID: 3341

external link

See also

Guardian (UK)
Extract Author: Paul Rowson
Extract Date: 9 Feb 2006

Tanz In 'Ere

Letter to the Guardian

... the best pun-based name. This is, of course, the Tanning Salon in Leeds which goes by the immortal name of Tanz In 'Ere, thus combining word play/use of local accent, geographical knowledge and a sense of humour.

Paul Rowson

Leeds

Extract ID: 5122

See also

Briggs, Philip Guide to Tanzania
Extract Author: Philip Briggs
Extract Date: June 2006

Author's Note

It would be easy to reduce an introduction to Tanzania to a list of facts and figures. This vast East African country really is a statistician's dream: within its borders lie Africa's highest and fifth-highest mountains, the world's largest intact volcanic caldera, Africa's most famous national park and the world's largest game reserve, as well as portions of the three most expensive lakes on the continent, one of which is the second-largest freshwater body in the world, another the second-deepest. When it comes to wildlife, Tanzania is practically without peer. An unprecedented 25% of the country is protected in national parks and other conservation areas. Together, these conservation areas support an estimated 20% of Africa's large mammal population, and one of them plays host to the singular spectacle of some two million wildebeest, zebra and gazelle. Furthermore, Tanzania is poised to overtake Kenya as boasting Africa's second-longest bird checklist (after the Democratic Republic of Congo), with significantly more than 1,000 bird species recorded, and new endemics being discovered all the time. And as if that were not enough, the three great lakes that lie along Tanzania's borders vie with each other for the honour of harbouring the world's greatest diversity of fish species...

Travel isn't simply about ticking off the sights. When you spend a long time in a country, your feelings towards it are determined as much as anything by the people who live there. I have no hesitation in saying that, on this level, my affection for Tanzania is greater that for any other African country I have visited. It is an oasis of peace and egalitarian values in a continent stoked up with political and tribal tensions, and its social mood embodies all that I respect in African culture. As a generalisation, I've always found Tanzanians to be polite and courteous, yet also warm and sincere, both amongst themselves and in their dealings with foreigners. The one thing I can say with near certainty is that you will enjoy Tanzania. Whether you decide to stick to the conventional tourist circuit, opt to carry a dusty backpack around the southern highlands, or charter a plane to go chimp-tracking in the rainforests of Mahale, Tanzania is a wonderful country.

Extract ID: 5136

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nTZ Feedback
Extract Author: Adam
Page Number: 2007 10 19

include more details

i was doing a project about Tanzania and i need more detail about the languages, tradition, history, customs, food, i need you to add more detail within 2 or 3 days make it quick.

Extract ID: 5493

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nTZ Feedback
Extract Author: Diana
Page Number: 2007 10 26

im praying for tanzania

my ame is diana

I had a dream I was watching tv and I heard a voice that said really clear and very firm maji maji uprising

I dropped out in the 9th grade I really donít have much education exept for what the lord has give me I didt know what this dream meant so I wet on the computer and looked it up and it had so much info on it about this war maji maji uprising

i pray for africa even though i know othing about it i live in ny in a poor area but u kow i am rich in GOD AMEN I PRAY THAT THEY WILL BE WELL AD THAT GOD BLESSES THEM I DONT KNOW WHAT IS HAPPENIG THERE BUT I WANT U TO KNOW GOD KNOWS AMEN GOD BLESS U IN JESUS NAME AMEN DIANA

Extract ID: 5495

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Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 13a

Tanzania

Four times the size of Great Britain, Tanzania, with a coastline of 5OOkms, covers 938,000 sq kms. and contains part of the Great Rift Valley which extends over 6000kms from Syria, the Jordan Valley, the Dead Sea and all the way down to Mozambique via Kenya.

Three great rivers, the Nile, the Zambezi and the Congo are fed by the Tanzania watershed and the country has more inland waters than any other African country.

Extract ID: 4047

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Africa News Online
Extract Author: Judith Achieng
Extract Date: 1999 November 4

Is Going To School A Preserve For Privileged Few?

Copyright (c) 1999 All Africa News Agency.

There are widespread concerns in Tanzania that secondary school education has become a preserve for a privileged few. An estimated seven percent of primary school leavers, way below the sub-Saharan average of 20 percent, proceed to this level of education. Every year, some quarter million pupils fail to get places in secondary Schools.

Paul Shabani's day begins and ends at the Indian Ocean harbour in the hot and humid Tanzanian capital of Dar Es Salaam, where he makes about 400 shillings (TShs 800 to the US dollar) selling iced water to dock workers. Shaban, 16, failed to secure a place at a government secondary school last year, although his primary school grades had been satisfactory.

'Life must move on, with or without education. It is better to do something instead of just giving up,' he says. Shabani is among the more than 250,000 pupils who each year fail to make it to secondary school due to shortage of Schools.

Secondary school education has become a preserve for a privileged few in Tanzania where only about seven percent of its primary school leavers, way below the sub-Saharan average of 20 percent, get admitted.

In 1995, 38,412 out of the total 386,584 candidates, who sat the final primary school examinations, were selected to public secondary Schools, while only 28,002 went to private secondary Schools.

This figure is too low compared, for example, with neighbouring Kenya where more than half of all primary school leavers is admitted to secondary Schools.

'If you are 100 in a class and only two are selected to go to secondary school, what is the use of trying,' says Shabani. The shocking statistics also applies for primary Schools where the cost of education is getting out of hand for many parents.

Although the Tanzanian government maintains that it offers free primary education, under the Universal Primary Education UPE programme, it costs a parent as much as 40,000 shillings each year in contributions, a sum majority of parents can hardly afford, in a country where poverty is a largely rural phenomenon and incomes are as low as a quarter a dollar a day.

More than 50 percent of Tanzanians are unable to meet their daily nutritional requirements, placing the East African country among 15 of the world's 15 poorest countries with a gross domestic product GDP per capita of 220 US dollars.

Out of the East African nation's 77 percent of children enrolled each year, only about half are able to complete primary school. Of the total, only about 15 percent secure a place in both public and private Schools.

Leading educationalist Suleiman Sumra blames the government's changing policies for the downturn in Tanzania's education system. 'It has been a trend in Tanzania to adopt policies without proper planning and without considering how to carry out the plans,' he says.

Since independence from Britain in 1961, the Tanzanian government has allocated at least 20 percent of its national budget to education.

In 1977, the then ruling party, Tanzania African national Union TANU, which later became Chama cha Mapinduzi CCM inaugurated a programme of compulsory universal primary school, based on the late President Julius Nyerere's socialist system of Ujamaa, where villagers helped to build Schools.

About three years later, nearly all school going age children, about 3.6 million, triple the number at independence, had joined the school system. And in 1985, primary school enrolment had reached 190,000.

Literacy among adults had also reached about 75 percent, above the African average, as a result of the socialist government's compulsory worker education campaign. However, much of the gains made in education in the 1970s and 1980s have been reduced by Tanzania's economic woes.

With the total enrolment in Tanzanian Schools about 3.8 million, and with more than 90 percent of the education budget going into the 60,000 teachers' salaries, Sumra says the quality of education is bound to decline even further.

'All the meat has already been cut off and only the bones are left,' he says. 'The government has stopped making new investment in education for maintaining Schools, all it's doing is paying teachers' salaries'. Everyone had equal accessibility to education... But the pressure on resources became too much that it affected the quality of education.

In his recent study, Equal Access To Education, An Illusion, a professor at Tanzania's University of Dar Es Salaam says at least 50,000 new Schools are needed to put all Tanzanian children in Schools, if the East African country is to achieve its education-for-all goal.

Servacius Likwelile, who runs the Dar Es Salaam-based Research on Poverty Alleviation REPOA, a non-governmental organisation NGO, attributes the declining quality of education in Tanzania to poverty and limited financial resources in the government.

'Because of UPE, everyone had equal accessibility to education. But the pressure on resources became too much that it affected the quality of education,' he says.

The establishment last year of a 45-billion-shilling Education Sector Reform Programme by the government of President Benjamin Mkapa is expected to improve the enrolment and quality of education in Tanzania.

Under the new scheme, a total of 13,000 new classrooms will be built to ensure that at least 42 percent of children enrolled in school achieve a full primary education.

Social issues such as culture have also affected education, particularly of the girls although the gender gap in enrolment has been closed in Tanzania.

In 1998, up to 100 female pupils in primary Schools in the Indian Ocean islands of Zanzibar and Pemba were expelled because they had already been married off by their parents, a common practice in the region.

According to the deputy Education Minister, Musa Ane Salima, the Tanzanian law hands out lenient punishment to parents who engage their children early in marriage.

Under the education act, an offender can only receive a maximum six-month jail term with an option of a 10,000 fine. 'There is need to review the act, so such parents can face stiffer Penalties,' he says.

Besides early marriages, girls spend much less time in their studies compared with boys because of domestic responsibilities. 'Girls have to do house chores, cook, fetch water and firewood,' says Astronaut Rutende, a gender activist in Dar Es Salaam.

Until recently, performance of girls in terms of enrolment and at the secondary school level, which was limited to very few primary school leavers left fewer girls than boys admitted. Recent policy changes that encouraged gender equality in Schools has raised a share of girls to 45 percent from 39 percent in comparison with boys.

Although the government has reversed its decision to expel pregnant girls from school, to offer them a chance to complete their education, the burden of responsibility for their reproductive health remains solely with their parents.

Extract ID: 167

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 09a

120 tribes coexist peacefully

More than 120 tribes coexist peacefully in Tanzania with their traditions, culture, language and social systems regulating each important event.

Some are organised along simple principles, others follow intricate rules which must be strictly obeyed: scarifications, mysterious beliefs, animism, respect for the elders, special dances and celebrations, all mark in their way their particular identity: leadership can be exercised by the head- man or by inheritance or paramount chiefs rule over multiple tribes living within the same environment sharing common structures; some tribes practice bride-price, paying for their brides with cattle, money or crops, others practice bride-service with labor due to the wife's parents; succession is patri- or matrilineal, with very well-defined and complex priorities. A unique social structure is the age-grade system where groups of the same age occupy precise grades at precise times of their lives and with specific activities attached to each age group. Members surviving after the last grade are no longer included in the social hierarchy of the group.

Extract ID: 4039
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