Name ID 879
Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 12
Slavery always existed in Africa as part of a social system but trade started with Arab raiders arriving around the 9th century to take Africans to markets in Mesopotamia, India, Persia and Arabia. In the 19th century slave trading was a flourishing commercial practice with regular and massive deportations organised by Arab slavers helped by local tribes such as the Nyamwezi who became their redoubtable partners. The most renowned Arab trader was Tippu Tip (Hemedi bin Muhammad el Marjebi), born in Zanzibar, who at 18 began slave and ivory trading between the interior and coastal towns, and by 1880 he had built a large commercial empire between the Upper Congo, Lake Tanganyika and Bagamoyo on the coast, where the slaves were shipped-off to Zanzibar for sale to foreign merchants. In East Africa all the main routes, such as the above, lay in Tanganyika: a route in the North passed through Karagwe and North of Lake Victoria and divided to head north to Bunyoro and north-east towards Buganda. A less frequented route in the south exploited by the Yao, led from Lake Nyasa to Kilwa.
The movement to abolish the slave trade started in England after publication of John Wesley's Thought upon Slavery in 1774 followed by Scottish economist Adam Smith's work The Wealth of Nations published in 1776. The latter laid to rest once and for all the 200 year-old economic belief that slave labour was cheaper than free men's work.
It still took more than a century for Slavery to be totally abolished. The Moresby Treaty in 1822, the Hamerton Treaty in 1845 and finally on 5th June 1873 the treaty signed between the British Consul in Zanzibar, Sir John Kirk, and Sultan Barghash made slave trading illegal. By 1889 all former slaves were declared free men and the status of slave was abolished in 1907 in British East Africa. Compensation claims, the last step to offset the intricate human-economic impact brought about by the abolition, were not considered after 31 December 1911.
In Tanganyika the status lasted another 15 years until the end of German rule when the country became a British Protectorate in 1922.
Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 11
Founded in 1862 by Sultan Seyyid Majid of Zanzibar who wanted to move his capital to the small port of Mzizima, his successor Barghash lost interest and interrupted the building of the town. With the arrival of the German East Africa Company, work was resumed in 1891 and the Imperial German Commissioner transferred the capital from Bagamayo to Dar es Salaam. Dodoma is now the official capital, Dar es Salaam being the business centre.
Africa News Online
Extract Date: 2000 January 14
Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.
Although the Minister for Tourism and Natural Resources Zakia Meghji witnessed more than 2000 tourists delight in Tanzania's natural heritage in the Mount Kilimanjaro Top 2000 Expedition, ancient sites with similar potential lay unattended.
Trusted with preserving Tanzania's cultural heritage, the department of antiquities under Minister Meghji is grossly under-staffed and under-funded.
'If we want to improve the department we must have the new approach,' says Mr. Donatus Kamamba, the acting director of antiquities.
He says despite the fact that the department has 117 sites to view all over the country, it has 63 workers only, mostly supporting staff.
According to him, not more than 10 are qualified individuals who can stay at a station and map out the strategies for development of the traditional legacy they are trusted to preserve.
'In the whole of Tanzania for example, there are only three qualified Architectural conservators, that is experts who deal with maintenance and preservation of old buildings,' says Mr. Kamamba, adding, 'at the department's headquarters in Dar Es Salaam, there is only one vehicle.'
He adds, the modest USD 30,000 budget the department projected last year to maintain all its stations was 'very moderate intended'
'At present the antiquities department is regarded as a unit, meant for serving a small area, which means that we get less staff, less facilities and less fund,' he laments.
Despite the efforts made by the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, to market Tanzania's attractions in oversees, there is no similar efforts being made to invest in the sector.
On his observation, a successful Mount Kilimanjaro Expedition, in which the Kilimanjaro National Park had pumped in USD 375, 000 equivalent in extensive preparations that has enabled it to net USD 750000, need to be replicated by other organizations.
The director says over 117 stations, only about 20 had at least enough staff and were attended to, with the rest either under-staffed or languishing unattended.
Kamamba notes that at present, the repair of the stations has been going on at the snails pace - about one station each year - due to lack of funds.
'At this rate, it will take almost 117 years to maintain all of them,' he says.
Among the transferred departments are the National Museum, the Antiquities Department, National Archives, Film Censorship Board, National Sports Council and National Art Council.
He alleges that his antiquities department has been marginalised while under the education ministry, for instance, in the budgets of the ministry from 1993 to 1998, 'no mention has been made of providing the department with workers and facilities.'
'Tourists cannot pay money to go to a place if it has no facilities,' he says, adding, 'There is basically no difference in natural heritage and cultural heritage in their potential for tourism.'
As tourists still stream towards Mount Kilimanjaro and to National Parks in the country, historical sites in Bagamoyo, Kilwa and many other parts in the country are, according to Mr. Kamamba, on the verge of total decline, he says.
Officials from the Tanzania Tourism Board and the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, have since 1997 been visiting various countries, mainly Canada, USA, Japan and Korea, to market the country's tourism products.
In Tanzania, the tourism sector is among the fastest growing and earners of sizable income, but receive less in terms of investment and incentives. (words 557)