Name ID 1216
Fosbrooke, Henry Arusha Integrated Regional Development Plan
Page Number: 7c
Extract Date: 1810
Paper 1 Land Tenure and Land Use
In the Maasai (Monduli, Kiteto, Loliondo) area the dominant people are of course the Maasai. They penetrated into this area from the North, commencing at the beginning about 1810 and spreading slowly southwards over the next 50 years. They are divided into numerous sub-tribes of which the Kisonko form the largest part of the Tanzanian Maasai. Several of the Kenyan sections, mainly Purku, Loitai and Latayok have spread into Tanzania, mainly in the Loliondo area.
Turner, Kay Serengeti Home
Page Number: 019a
Extract Date: 1913
The Rediscovered Country (New York: Doubleday, Page & Co, 1915)
Stewart Edward White, an American Hunter, crossed from the Great Rift Valley via Loliondo to Lobo Springs.
In a book called The Rediscovered Country (New York: Doubleday, Page & Co, 1915), he described the Serengeti as
'the haunt of swarms of game' and, added,
'in this beautiful, wide, populous country, no sportsman's rifle has ever been fired.'
White moved among
'those hordes of unsophisticated beasts as a lord of Eden would have moved,'
Fosbrooke, Henry Ngorongoro: The Eighth Wonder
Page Number: 029
Extract Date: 1934 Aug 9
[Fosbrooke, Henry] First passed through Ngorongoro on route for Loliondo to take up posting as Assistant District Officer in charge of Loliondo sub-division of the Masai District, which, as now (1972) included Ngorongoro and the surrounding highland
Internet Web Pages
Extract Author: Robert S. Cragg
Page Number: 1
Attached are lists of villages and other offices where you may find a circular date stamp. Well, most are circular and almost all are dated. The lists are loosely arranged as follows:
Name as it appears in an early cancel or in the majority of cancels. Many town names, especially in Africa and Asia, have a number of spellings in English. These are ignored. But, if the town name changed significantly, the newer name is in parentheses. Names often changed because of confusing same or similar names in the same colony.
Also, independence led to de-Anglicization, especially if the town name included words such as "fort". If the town is a post office outside of the colony but administered by the colony, that is indicated.
Next is the earliest date "known" of a dated cancel or, sometimes the date of opening. If not from literature, then from my collection. Sadly, most early dates from my collection are not that early.
Then there are letter or numeral killers used alone or in conjunction with a date stamp. Sometimes several different numbers were used, perhaps in different styles. This is a huge field, only touched on here.
Lastly, the location of the village is given (or will later be given) by latitude and longitude. Sometimes this is only approximate, variables including inaccurate old maps, inaccurate new maps, moving of towns, confusion over similar town names, quirky software and my own clerical errors.
The lists are a place to get started. They are incomplete, the degree depending on what literature is available to the author. Focus is on villages with post offices around the turn of the century without attempting to include newer offices. The cut-off date for each colony varies, depending on manageability of the number of offices.
Many of the village marks are rare. Occasionally, only a single example is known. Some offices were open only a few months and have disappeared from modern maps.
[short list, with some names from Northern Tanzania]
Arusha 1922 3s22 36e41
Babati 1935 4s13 35e45
Kondoa 1920 4s54 35e47
Loliondo 1937 2s03 35e37
Mbulu 1920 sl 3s51 35e32
Monduli 1939 3s18 36e26
Moshi 1917 3s21 37e20
Ngare Nairobi 1928
Oldeani 1934 3s21 35e33
Singida 1926 4s49 34e45
Usa River 1929 3s22 36e50
D.O. at Loliondo
Smith, Anthony Throw out two hands
Page Number: 249a
Extract Date: 1962
Briefly, the plan was to go just beyond the Serengeti boundary, near the Loliondo road and beneath the hill range known as 0l Doinyo Gol. All five vehicles would move there in the evening, and would select a site 10 miles upwind of the herd for the inflation. In choosing this place we would have to allow for the herd's movement when we were sleeping, and then take off in the early morning aiming to go right across the middle of it. This meant inflating the balloon during the latter part of the night. It would be foolhardy blowing it up the day before and then tethering it while we slept. We had often been woken to sudden squalls that had hit the plain from nowhere, and we wished to reduce the time to the minimum between inflation and departure. After all, the Manyara storm had warned us of this peril. The idea was to turn on the gas at 4 a.m., to reach the tricky stage of the basket's attachment by first light, and then to take off with the earliest hint of the morning breeze. For the flight itself, there was the whole wide plain of the Serengeti to be traversed.
Nyamweru, Celia Oldoinyo Lengai Web Site
Page Number: 14
Extract Date: August 1966
During the climb on 21st August, the lower slopes were covered with about half an inch of new, snow white ash which reached a thickness of about 2 inches closer to the summit. The active crater was full of swirling ash and dust. In it was a new ash cone in whose summit was a shallow bowl-shaped pit about 100 yards in diameter. In the centre of this pit was a small double vent from which there was a continuous discharge of gas and whitish-grey ash and dust. There was a continuous roaring noise and a strong smell of sulphur. Ash was scattered all over most of the inside of the crater and there was about 6 inches of new black ash on the outer slopes of the east rim. The crater was observed from 10.30 a.m. to 1.50 p.m., during which period no lava extrusion was seen, and the ejected material was not larger than ash size.
The photograph [see web site] (taken by Gordon Davies) shows the active crater in August 1966.
At 2.45 p.m. on 21st August there was a violent harsh explosion and a dense column of black ash rose vertically above the crater. A series of loud explosions occurred at intervals of less than 15 seconds, each one accompanied by the expulsion of more ash. This continued until about 4.0 p.m., when the explosions ceased, though the ejection of ash continued all that day and throughout the night.
At 11.30 a.m. on 22nd August, when these observations ended, the pine-tree shaped cloud of a Plinian-type eruption was towering above the volcano.
On the morning of 23rd August activity had almost ceased; only a small amount of ash was rising to a few hundred feet above the volcano. The ash cone within the northern crater had grown higher.
On 1st September another violent ash eruption was reported.
On 3rd and 4th September activity continued; a column of ash rose above the volcano and drifted away to the north. The summit crater was almost infilled with ash, though there was still a deep pit in its centre. On 11th October the volcano was still active; the local Maasai pastoralists and the wild game animals had moved out of the area, probably because the water and grazing supplies were contaminated by the ash. The photograph [see web site] , taken by Joan Westenberg in August 1966, shows the thickness of ash on the lower slopes of the volcano.
Ash fall was reported as far as Seronera (130 km west), Loliondo (70 km north-west) and Shombole (70 km north).
On 28th October the volcano was seen to be covered with white ash, and was still active, with a light plume of ash blowing away to the north-west.
Observations in late December 1966 and on 1st January 1967 established that there was no activity.
A major explosive eruption was reported on 8 - 9th July 1967. Ash fell at Arusha (110 km southeast) and at Wilson Aerodrome in Nairobi, 190 km to the northeast. After this the volcano seems to have remained dormant for several years. Click here to see what happened in 1983.
Pearson, John Hunters of the Plains
Page Number: 061
Extract Date: 25 April 1977
He had come from his boma near Piaya because they had heard that some Wazungu - white men - were camped near Nasera. A Maasai man had been attacked by a lion, he said - or was it the other way around, I wondered - and the people in the boma were afraid he would die if he was not taken to hospital soon. Would I help them?
There is of course, only one possible reply to a query like that. There is no way you can, or would want to, refuse your help. But before agreeing I wanted to know a little more about what I was letting myself in for. Piaya I had heard of but never actually visited, so I had only a vague notion as to its whereabouts. `How far is your Manyatta?' I asked. They didn't know how far their village was. `How long had they walked to get here?' A discussion followed. `Three or four hours,' they thought. `Was it in the hills?' `Yes.' `Can I get there by car?' `We will help you,' they replied. `Where did they want to take him?" To Loliondo,' they said as one. `There is a good hospital there.'' How far is Loliondo?' They didn't know.
`All right,' I said, `I'll come. We will start tomorrow morning. It will be quicker in daylight.' `That is good,' their spokesman said, `but it would be better if we went now because the man might die.' I was pretty certain he wouldn't. And in any event, if he was really that far gone I doubted if a bumpy ride across country would do much for him. But I would have it on my conscience for ever if he died. And in any case, the sooner I started, the sooner I would get back.
Pearson, John Hunters of the Plains
Page Number: 064
Extract Date: 25 April 1977
It was nearly midnight when we reached our destination. The moon was up and in its light I could see people hurrying
towards us, not just from one boma but several. Most of the men appeared to be moran - young warriors. They were remarkably silent. On each forehead gleamed the silver ornament they use to tie the braids of their hair together. The uniformity of their dress and the stylized grouping of the warriors as they stood about us seemed utterly mediaeval. Our guides came up, said `Goodbye' and then departed. Several older men then approached and one of them spoke to me. I couldn't understand a word he said.
`First he say they want thank you for coming,' David translated.
`Now he say they give you goat for present.'
`Thank him for me please and ask him if they will keep the goat until we return.'
A lengthy discussion ensued. `He say they bring goat to camp tomorrow,' David told me. I guessed that he had decided the offer of the goat was too good to pass up.
`He say they want us to take this man to Loliondo. Not to Ngorongoro. Doctor at Loliondo very good,' David went on. This was Dr Wachtsinger, almost a legend in this part of Maasailand.
`Alright,' I said.
`Now he want to know if you want money for petrol.' `No.'
At this, the old man and several moran came forward and one by one they shook me by the hand. They asked if I would wait while they fetched the man's father from a nearby boma as he was to accompany us to Loliondo. After that the gathering started to break up and things became less formal. A crowd peered into the car. Several times I felt myself touched by people who, I don't doubt, had never been this close to a European before and couldn't resist the temptation to make, sure he really was flesh and bone.
After about an hour, all was ready. The injured man was led out, walking, but supported on either side. In the moonlight it was impossible to make out the extent of his injuries. They got him into the back sitting position and then four other Maasai crammed themselves in as well. One sat in the luggage compartment. The usual collection of spears and other assorted weapons of war was stowed away on the floor.
This time, unlike the first leg of the journey, our passengers were not moran but elders, and now a constant stream of advice flowed from the back. `Faster' . . . `Slower' . . . `Go back' . . . `Forward' . . . `Turn left' . . . `Now right' . . . one of them even knew a few words of English. `Lefti wheeli' he kept saying.
Pearson, John Hunters of the Plains
Page Number: 069
Extract Date: 26 April 1977
In daylight the journey wasn't difficult. We found where we had made the original mistake and it was exactly where Lefti Wheeli said it was. But Loliondo was much further on than I had thought - only 16 miles from the Kenya border, in fact. We'd never have made it on the one tank of fuel after first climbing up into the Gols. So at least I had the consolation of being right, even if not quite for the reason I'd originally had in mind.
We reached the Loliondo Hospital at 1 o'clock. The good Dr Wachtsinger came out, examined his new patient, and handed him over to the sisters to clean up. While that was going on he took me off to have lunch. The green lawns, the white paint, the neatness and order after the mud and shambles of the last few days made it seem as if I had suddenly been released from a lunatic asylum. `I'm always telling them not to treat breaks like that if there's a wound underneath,' said the doctor, `but they never listen. And those wounds aren't 3 days old like they say. It has to have happened at least 10 days ago for them to be in that condition. And if it happened all that time ago why didn't they bring him to me in Piaya? I was there last Tuesday.'
. . .
The Maasai's chances of survival would have been pretty slim if he hadn't received medical attention at that stage. In remote areas of this kind you frequently receive requests for help from the local inhabitants. To most of them though you have to turn a deaf ear. Of course, you would like nothing more than to drive one of the elder's wives 8o miles to visit her sick mother. But in the first place you are there to film and not to run a taxi service, and in the second there is always the faint suspicion that the heart-breaking tale of woe with which you are currently being belaboured is little more than a stratagem designed to achieve some quite different end.
Odhiambo, Nicodemus Maasai Up Against Arabs Destroying Their Environment
Extract Author: Nicodemus Odhiambo
Extract Date: 2000 April 24
Panafrican News Agency
A land dispute at the heart of which are environmental concerns is brewing in the northern Tanzanian region of Arusha.
Maasai Pastoralists who inhabit the region are up in arms against an Arab company licensed by the government to carry out hunting activities in the area.
Thirteen elders of the Maasai people have been in Dar es Salaam to press the government for action against Ortello Business Company of the United Arab Emirates.
They accuse the company of environmental degradation and plundering natural resources in the range land where their herds of cattle graze.
However, Arusha regional commissioner Daniel ole Njoolay has denied the furore raised by residents of three villages of Sambu, Oloosoito-Maaloni and Arash against the Arab firm. He says their claims of environment degradation may be politically-motivated. But the Maasai insist that they will not accept anything less than government intervention, according to Sandet ole Reya, spokesperson of the elders group.
Should the government fail to intervene, the Maasai will institute litigation against the state and the company, ole Reya said. The Tanzanian association of environmental journalists, JET, has strongly condemned the company and appealed to other national and international environmentalists to intervene in the dispute.
'JET is informed that there is haphazard killing of wild animals in the area by using remote sensing techniques at night,' JET chair Balinangwe Mwambungu has said in a statement.
Accusations raised by the Maasai, Mwambungu said, should be treated with authenticity because the group 'is not affiliated to any political party and, therefore, had no reason to lie to the world.'
Ortello was licensed in 1993 to carry out hunting activities and allocated hunting blocks in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area by the government of former president Ali Hassan Mwinyi.
At that time it was widely believed that corruption oiled the wheels of government to get the licence. The Maasai Pastoralists expressed their concern at that time, saying the land, being their common property, was allocated to the Arab company without their consent.
The company has over the years tried to placate the villagers by giving them what the Maasai elders have described as empty promises to improve local infrastructure.
Part of the unfulfilled promises include construction of schools and installation of other social amenities.
A more recent pledge the villagers anxiously await is the promise by Ortello's general manager, Ahmed Saaed, to sink 32 boreholes in order to alleviate water shortage in the semi-arid range land.
The company has built mosques in the area and had embarked on a campaign to convert the Maasai into Moslems, a move the villagers considered as despicable.
Standing their ground, the Maasai Pastoralists who usually move from place to place in search of pasture for their cattle herds, say they will not be placated easily this time.
'We cannot just sit and watch the Arabs take our land. If necessary, we will wipe out all animals in the area to keep the Arabs out of our land,' said ole Reya, explaining retaliatory actions his people were likely to take in case the government does not respond to their demands.
He also said that they could even migrate en masse across the border into neighbouring Kenya where the same people live on a pastoral economy.
According to the Maasai elders, the Arab company was constructing a three- kilometre airstrip in the game controlled area. They said the project would disturb wild animals during seasonal migration.
Ole Reya said that military cargo planes from the United Arab Emirates frequently landed at the unfinished airstrip without following international aviation rules.
In addition, ole Reya said, Ortello company was completing a mansion within the game area and a warehouse at the source of River Olosai to facilitate the carting off of massive amounts of trophy.
'This is truly land alienation and we are prepared not to let it pass,' ole Reya said, recalling the arrest of scores of villagers when 20,000 of them marched on the site to block construction of the mansion.
Ole Reya also alleges that an unnamed Arab prince, notoriously referred to as 'brigadier,' could be seen carting off live wild animals from the area to his country.
'This is despicable and shameful not only to Tanzanians but also to people all over the world who care for wildlife and the environment,' JET said.
The journalists' association has questioned the motive behind the construction of an airstrip in Loliondo and wondered why the government was not monitoring flights in and out of the area.
'We are concerned with the issue because Loliondo is an important wildlife dispersal area for migratory species from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya to the great Serengeti plains in Arusha region,' Mwambungu added.
Tanzania's minister for natural resources and tourism, Zakia Meghji, has said that the government would send experts to the area to determine the allegations.
She said the experts would conduct an environmental audit to ascertain whether the activities of Ortello company were jeorpadising wildlife.
Professional hunting in Tanzania has been on the rise since the country adopted liberal economic policies in the early 1990s.
Hunting blocks were set aside, rising from 47 in 1965 to 140 by 1997.
The Ortello saga is only the latest hoopla in a series of allegations concerning flaws in the granting of hunting licences and hunting blocks in Tanzania.
According to an environmental lawyers association here, issuance of presidential hunting licences had been constantly abused through corruption and nepotism in a manner likely to jeorpadise wildlife conservation in Tanzania.
The East African
Extract Author: John Mbaria
Extract Date: February 4, 2002
KENYA COULD end up losing 80 per cent of its wildlife species in protected areas bordering Tanzania to hunters licensed by the Tanzanian government.
The hunters have been operating for about a decade in a section of the migratory route south from Kenya to Tanzania's Serengeti National Park.
They shoot large numbers of animals as they move into the park during the big zebra and wildebeest migration between July and December.
There are fears that the Maasai Mara National Park and most of Kenya's wildlife areas bordering Tanzania could lose much of their wildlife population, threatening the country's Ksh20 billion ($256 million) a year tourism industry.
Kenya banned Hunting in 1977 but the sport is legal in Tanzania, where it is sold as "Safari Hunting."
"The product sold is really the experience of tracking and killing animals, the services that go with this and the prestige of taking home the trophies," says a policy document from the Tanzania Wildlife Corporation (Tawico).
Tanzania wildlife officials said wild animals that cross over from Kenya are hunted along their migratory routes in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area in Ngorongoro district of Arusha region, 400 km northwest of Arusha. The area was designated by the British colonial power as a sports Hunting region for European royalty.
The officials said the area is now utilised by a top defence official from the United Arab Emirates (UAE), trading as Ortelo Business Company (OBC), through a licence issued in 1992 by former Tanzania President Ali Hassan Mwinyi. The permit allows the company to hunt wild game and trap and take some live animals back to the UAE.
Safari Hunting earns big money for the Tanzanian government, which charges each hunter $1,600 a day to enter the controlled area.
A hunter is also required to pay fees for each kill, with an elephant costing $4,000, a lion and a leopard $2,000 each and a buffalo $600. The document has no quotation for rhinos.
The sport is organised in expeditions lasting between one and three weeks in the five Hunting blocks of Lake Natron Game Controlled Area, Rungwa Game Reserve, Selous Mai, Selous U3 and Selous LU4.
For the period the hunters stay in each of the Hunting blocks, they pay between $7,270 and $13,170 each. Part of this money is shared out among the many Ujamaa villages, the local district councils and the central government.
Although Tawico restricts the number of animals to be culled by species, poor monitoring of the activities has meant indiscriminate killing of game.
"Some of the animals are snared and either exported alive or as meat and skins to the United Arab Emirates and other destinations," local community members told The EastAfrican during a recent trip to the area.
They claimed the hunters were provided with "blank Hunting permits," giving them discretion over the number of animals to be hunted down. Kenya wildlife conservation bodies are concerned that big game Hunting in the Ngorongoro area is depleting the wildlife that crosses the border from Kenya.
"Kenya is losing much of its wildlife to hunters licensed by the Tanzanian government," the chairman of the Maasai Environmental and Resource Coalition (MERC), Mr Andrew ole Nainguran, said. MERC was set up in 1999 to sensitise members of the Maasai community in Kenya and Tanzania to the benefits of wildlife conservation.
Kenya and Tanzania wildlife authorities have regularly discussed the problem of security and poaching in Arusha. However, the KWS acting director, Mr Joe Kioko, said legalised Hunting has never been discussed in any of the meetings.
The hunters are said to fly directly from the UAE to the area using huge cargo and passenger planes which land on an all-weather airstrip inside the OBC camp. The planes are loaded with sophisticated Hunting equipment, including four-wheel drive vehicles, weapons and communication gadgets.
On their way back, the planes carry a variety of live animals, game trophies and meat. Employees at the camp said the hunters are sometimes accompanied by young Pakistani and Filipino women.
The International Fund for Animal Welfare regional director, Mr Michael Wamithi, said Kenya and Tanzania should discuss the negative impact of the sport Hunting on Kenya's conservation efforts.
"The two neighbours have a Cross-Border Law Enforcement Memorandum of Understanding where such issues could be dealt with."
Kenya seems to be alone in adhering to strict protection of wildlife, a policy famously demonstrated by President Daniel arap Moi's torching of ivory worth $760,000 in 1989.
Although the country has made significant progress in securing parks from poachers, it is yet to embrace a policy on "consumptive utilisation" of animals advocated by Kenyan game ranchers and Zimbabwe, which wants the international trade ban on ivory lifted.
The animals in the Hunting block have been reduced to such an extent that the OBC camp management has been spreading salt and pumping water at strategic places to attract animals from Serengeti and the outlying areas.
"We will not have any animals left in the vicinity unless the Hunting is checked," a local community leader, Mr Oloomo Samantai ole Nairoti, said, arguing that the area's tourism economy was being jeopardised.
Mysterious fires in the area to the south of Serengeti have also forced animals to seek refuge in the Hunting blocks.
Locals said the camp is exclusively patronised by Arab visitors. The camp is usually under tight security by Tanzanian police.
The permit granted by Mr Mwinyi has raised controversy in Tanzania and was at one stage the subject of a parliamentary probe committee because members of UAE's royal family were not entitled to the Hunting rights in the country.
"Only presidents or monarchs are entitled to hunt in the area," an official said, adding that the UAE royal family had abused their permit by killing animals outside their given quotas or specified species.
The government revoked the licence in 1999 after realising that OBC was airlifting many wild animals to the Middle East, only to renew the permit in 2000. The current permit runs until 2005.
The withdrawal of the permit followed the recommendations of a 1994 parliamentary probe commission set up to "investigate the Hunting behaviour" of the UAE company.
Sources said permanent Hunting is prohibited in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area for fear of depleting animals from the four parks, which host the bulk of the region's tourist resorts.
The area is in a natural corridor where wild animals cross while roaming between the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and Serengeti National Park in Tanzania and Maasai Mara Game Reserve and Amboseli National Park in Kenya.
The late founding president of Tanzania, Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, took to himself the powers to issue Hunting permits for Loliondo when Tanzania became independent in 1961, but he never granted any.
After obtaining the permit, the UAE hunters created Hunting blocks in the area covering over 4,000 sq km.
No other Hunting companies have been granted permits, the source said.
The UAE royal family has donated passenger aircraft to the Tanzania army and a number of vehicles to the Wildlife Division.
The 1974 Wildlife Act set up five categories of wildlife conservation areas.
These are national parks, game reserves, partial game reserve, open areas and Ngorongoro Conservation Area. Hunting is prohibited in the national parks and Ngorongoro Conservation Area, but allowed in other areas during the seasonal Hunting period from July to December.
Additional reporting by Apolinari Tairo in Dar es Salaam
Tomlinson, Chris Big game hunting threatening Africa
Extract Author: Chris Tomlinson
Extract Date: 2002 03 20
Loliondo GAME CONTROL AREA, Tanzania - At a dirt airstrip in rural Tanzania, a desert camouflaged cargo plane from the United Arab Emirates air force taxis up to pallets stacked with large coolers full of game meat, the harvest of a successful Hunting season.
As Tanzanian immigration and customs officials fill out documents under a thatched shelter, brand-new, four-wheel-drive trucks and dune buggies drive to and from a nearby luxury campsite, the base for one of Tanzania's most expensive - and secretive - game Hunting operations, Otterlo Business Corp.
Hundreds of members of Arab royalty and high-flying businessmen spend weeks in the Loliondo Game Control Area each year Hunting antelope, lion, leopard and other wild animals. The area is leased under the Otterlo name by a member of an emirate royal family who is a senior officer in the UAE defense ministry.
While neighboring Kenya outlawed big game Hunting in 1978, the Tanzanian government says Hunting is the best use of the land and wildlife. But villagers and herders say big money has led government officials to break all the Hunting rules, resulting in the destruction of most of the area's non-migratory animals and putting East Africa's most famous national parks under threat.
Loliondo is on the main migratory route for wildlife north of Ngorongoro Crater, east of Serengeti National Park and south of Kenya's Masai Mara National Reserve. The summer Hunting season coincides with the migration of wildebeest and zebra through the area, where they eventually cross into the Serengeti and the Masai Mara. Predatory animals follow the migration.
During the colonial era, Loliondo was set aside for European royalty as a Hunting area. Since independence, Loliondo has remained a Hunting reserve, but it is supposed to be managed by area residents for their benefit.
Local leaders, who refuse to speak publicly because they fear retribution, say they have not been consulted about the lease that was granted in 1995 by national officials in Tanzania's political capital, Dodoma. They say government officials have tried to silence criticism.
"The lease was given by the government and the Maasai landowners were not involved," said one Maasai leader. "All the resident animals have been killed ... (now) they carry out Hunting raids in the Serengeti National Park, but the government closes its eyes."
Maasai warriors told The Associated Press that hunters give cash to anyone who can lead them to big game, especially leopards. They also said that Otterlo officials have begun pumping water into some areas to attract more animals and that what the warriors call suspicious fires in the Serengeti have caused animals to move into Loliondo.
An Otterlo manager, who gave his name only as Khamis, initially agreed to an interview with AP but later did not return repeated phone calls.
In an interview with the newspaper, The East African, Otterlo managing director Juma Akida Zodikheri said his company adheres to Tanzanian law, and he denied hunters killed animals indiscriminately. He said the owner of the company is Maj. Gen. Mohammed Abdulrahim al Ali, deputy defense minister of the UAE.
While Tanzania has strict rules on game Hunting, Maasai who have worked at the lodge say guests are never told of the limits and hunt as much as they want. Tanzanian officials deny that.
Col. A.G.N. Msangi, district commissioner for Ngorongoro District, said all applicable rules are enforced. He accused the Maasai of rumor-mongering in an effort to discredit Otterlo.
The company "is following the system the government wants," Msangi said. "OBC has invested more money here than any other company in the district."
Msangi said Hunting companies request permission to kill a certain number of animals. Once the request is approved by wildlife experts at the Ministry of the Environment, the company pays a fee based on that number whether they actually kill the animals or not, he said.
"We have police and ministry people making sure they don't exceed what they have paid for," Msangi said. The tourists are also required to employ professional hunters to ensure no female or young animals are killed, he added.
Compared to the numbers in Serengeti National Park, very few large animals were seen during a three-hour drive through Loliondo. But without any independent survey of the animal population, it is impossible to know whether Msangi's conservation efforts are working.
Msangi described his main duty as balancing the needs of people, animals and conservation. He said not only does Hunting revenue finance wildlife conservation, but Otterlo, like most tourism companies, also makes charitable donations to help pay for schools and development projects and it provides badly need jobs.
Also appeared in http://www.washtimes.com/world/20020801-22110374.htm
1 Aug 2002
Internet Web Pages
Extract Author: Lifer
Extract Date: April 16 2002
Posted - April 16 2002 : 20:53:22
The East African Newspaper of 4-10 February 2002 carried an article titled "Game Carnage in Tanzania Alarms Kenya", written by John Mbaria with supplement information from Apolinari Tairo of Dar es Salaam. The article was on The Ortello Business Hunting Company, which started to hunt in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area in 1992.
The following are issues raised in the article:
a) Hunting activities carried out in Liliondo Game Controlled Area near the Tanzania / Kenyan border causes loses of 80% of the Kenyan wildlife.
b) Hunting is conducted in the migratory route in the south between Kenya and Serengeti National Park. The animals are hunted during the migratory period as they move to Kenya and on their way back to Tanzania in July to December.
c) Hunting is threatening the Kenyan tourism industry, which earns the country USD 256.0 annually.
d) The Hunting kills animals haphazardly, without proper guidance and monitoring of actual number of animals killed and exported outside the country.
e) Airplanes belonging to Ortello Business Corporation (OBC) carry unspecified type of live animals and birds from Loliondo on their way back to UAE. Further more, the air planes fly directly in and out of Loliondo without stopping at Kilimanjaro International Airport (KIA).
The following are responses to the issues raised:
2.0 Conservation of wildlife in Tanzania
Tanzania is among the top ten countries in the world rich in biodiversity. Tanzania is also leading in wildlife conservation in Africa. It has 12 National Parks, including the famous Serengeti National Park, 34 Game Reserves and 38 Game Controlled Areas. The wildlife –protected areas cover 28% of the land surface area of Tanzania. In recognition of the good conservation works, Tanzania was awarded a conservation medal in 1995 by the Safari Club International whose headquarters is in the United States of America.
Tanzania has a number of important endangered animal species in the world. Such animal species are: Black Rhino, Wild Dog, Chimpanzee, Elephant and Crocodile (Slender Snorted Crocodile).
In 1998, the Government of Tanzania adopted a Wildlife Policy, which gives direction on conservation and advocate sustainable use of wildlife resources for the benefit of the present and future generations.
3.0 Tourist Hunting
Regulated tourist Hunting or any other type of Hunting that observes conservation ethics does not negatively affect wild animal populations. This is because Hunting ethics is based on selective Hunting and not random shooting of animals. Hunting was banned in Tanzania from 1972 to 1978. The resultant effect was increased poaching and reduced government revenue from wildlife conservation. Low revenue caused low budgetary allocations to wildlife conservation activities and the lack of working gear and equipment. When the tourist Hunting resumed Elephant population increased from 44,000 (in 1989) to 45,000 (in 1994). Elephant is a keystone species in the Hunting industry and is a good indicator in showing population status of other animal species in their habitat.
In 1989 to 1993 the government revenue from the Hunting industry increased from USD 2,422,500.00 to USD 7,377,430.00. The government earned a total of USD 9.3 Million from tourist Hunting in the year 2002. Increased revenue and keystone species such as Elephant are the results of efficient implementation of good plans and policies in conservation and sustainable use of wildlife resources.
4.0 Response to the issues raised in the article
4.1 Hunting against the law by OBC
OBC is one of the 40 Hunting companies operating in Tanzania. The Company belongs to the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Different from other Hunting companies, OBC does not conduct tourist Hunting business. The Kingdom of UAE has been the client Hunting in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area since 1992.
In conducting Hunting in Loliondo Game Controlled Area, the Company adhere to the law and regulations governing the tourist Hunting industry, namely:
4.1.1 Payment of concession fee amounting to USD 7,500.00 per Hunting block per year.
4.1.2 Requesting for a Hunting quota from the Director of Wildlife, before issuance of Hunting permit.
4.1.3 Payment of game fees as stipulated by the Government.
4.1.4 Hunting only those animals shown in the Hunting permit.
4.1.5 Contributing to the development of the Hunting block, local communities’ development projects and anti-poaching activities.
The following is what OBC has done so far:
· Contribution towards the development of the Ngorongoro District of USD 46,000.00
· Construction of Waso Primary and Secondary Schools, six bore holes and cattle dips and has purchased two buses to enhance/local transportation. Furthermore, OBC contributed TSh. 30.0M to six villages in the Hunting area, for providing secondary school education to 21 children.
· Purchased a generator and water pump worth TSh. 11.0M for provision of water to six villages. It has also constructed all weather roads and an airstrip within Loliondo area.
4.1.6. Different from the rest of the Hunting companies OBC Hunting period is very short. Normally the Hunting season lasts for six months, but OBC hunts for a maximum of four months. Few animals are shot from the Hunting permit.
4.2 Animals hunted in migratory routes.
The Government of Tanzania has permitted Hunting in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area and not in the migratory route between Masai Mara and Serengeti National Park. The Loliondo Game Controlled Area is a plain bordering the Serengeti National Park to the east.
4.3 The right for Tanzania to use wildlife in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area
The wildlife found in Tanzania is the property of the Government of Tanzania. The notion that these animals belong to Kenya is not correct. The wild animals in Loliondo Game Controlled Area do not have dual citizenship . Since some animal species move back and forth between Tanzania and Kenya it is better understood that these animals would be recognised to belong to either party during the time they are in that particular country. Animals in Masai Mara, Serengeti, Loliondo and Ngorongoro belong to one ecosystem namely, Serengeti ecosystem. However, Tanzania being a sovereign State with her own policies has the right by law to implement them. The same applies to Kenya, which has the right to implement its no-Hunting policy basing on the administration of her laws. Tanzania has therefore, not done anything wrong to undertake Hunting on her territory.
4.4 Hunting is threatening Kenyan tourism
Migratory animals move into Kenya during the rainy season. After the rainy season they move back to Tanzania. Animals that are hunted in Liliondo Game Controlled Area during this time of the year are very few. In the year 2000, only 150 animals were hunted, and in the year 2001 only 139 animals were hunted. It is therefore, not true that 80% of the animals in the border area were hunted. Based on this argument, it is also not true that Hunting conducted by OBC is threatening the Kenyan tourism industry. Tanzania does not allow Hunting of elephants 10 kilometres from the Tanzania/Kenya international boundary. (CITES meeting held at the Secretariat Offices in Geneva in 1993). This is an example of the measures taken to control what was erroneously referred to by the East African Paper as “haphazard Hunting of animals of Kenya”.
Furthermore, it is not true that the Wildlife Division does not know the number of animals that are killed. Control of Hunting is done by the Wildlife Division, District Council and other Law Enforcement agencies. The OBC does not capture and export live animals since it does not possess valid licence to do so.
4.5 OBC airplances export assorted number of live animals from Loliondo to UAE
Capture and export of live animals and birds is conducted in accordance with the Wildlife Conservation Act No. 12 of 1974 and resolutions of the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The live animal trade is also conducted in accordance with the International Air Transport Association (IATA) regulations, with regard to the size of the boxes/containers allowed to transport specific animal species in order to avoid injuries or death of the same. The principle behind the live animal trade is sustainability. CITES may prohibit exportation of animals whose trade is not sustainable. On these grounds it is obvious that CITES and therefore, its 150 members recognise that the Tanzanian live animal trade is sustainable.
Live animal traders who exports animals, birds and other live specimens are obliged to adhere to the following procedure:
i) Must hold valid licence to trade on live animals.
ii) Must hold a capture permit and thereafter an ownership permit./certificate. The number of animals possessed and the number of animals listed on the ownership permit must be consistent with the number of animals that were listed in the capture permit and actually captured and certified.
iii) Must obtain an export permit for animals listed on the ownership permit/certificate.
iv) The Officer at the point of exit must certify that the animals exported are those listed on the certificate of export. The number of animals to be exported must tally with the number listed on the certificate of export.
Verification of exported animals is conducted in collaboration with the police and customs officials.
v) The plane that will carry live animals is inspected by the Dar es Salaam and Kilimanjaro Handling Companies’ Officials.
vi) For animals listed under CITES, appropriate export and import certificates are used to export the said specimens. If there is any anomaly in exporting CITES species, the importing country notifies CITES Secretariat, which in turn notifies the exporting country, and the animals in question are immediately returned to the country of export.
4.6 Other specific isues
4.6.1 Hunters are given blank permits
Companies are issued Hunting quotas before they commence Hunting activities. Each hunter is given a permit, which shows the animals that he/she is allowed to hunt depending on the quota issued and the type of safari. There are four types of safari Hunting as follows: 7, 14, 16 and 21 days safari. Each Hunting safari indicates species and numbers of animals to be hunted. When an animal is killed or wounded the officer in-charge overseeing Hunting activities signs to certify that the respective animal has been killed. If the animal has been wounded, the animal is tracked down and killed to ensure that no other animal is killed to replace the wounded animal at large. This procedure is a measure of monitoring of animals killed by hunters.
4.6.2 Good Neighbourhood Meetings between Tanzania and Kenya
There are three platforms on which Tanzania and Kenya meet to discuss conservation issues as follows:
a) The Environment and Tourism Committee of the EAC.
b) The Lusaka Agreement. In the Lusaka Agreement Meeting conservation and anti-poaching matters amongst member countries are discussed. The HQ of the Lusaka Agreement is in Nairobi.
c) Neighbourhood meeting. Experts in the contiguous conservation areas meet to discuss areas of cooperation between them, for example, in joint anti-poaching operations. Based on the regulations that govern the Hunting industry animals are not threatened by extinction since the animals that are hunted are old males for the purpose of obtaining good trophies. Trophies are attractions in this Hunting business. It is on this basis that tourist Hunting is not discussed in the said meetings, because is not an issue for both countries.
4.6.3 OBC airplanes flies directly to and from Loliondo without passing through KIA
The Tanzania Air Traffic Law requires that all airplanes land at KIA before they depart to protected areas. When the airplanes are at KIA and DIA the respective authorities conduct their duties according. The same applies when airplanes fly to UAE. They are required to land at KIA in order to go through immigration and customs checks. The allegation that OBC airplane does not land in KIA is therefore false. Furthermore, Tanzania Air Traffic Control regulates all airplanes includingly, OBC airplane at entry points.
4.6.4 OBC sprays salt in some parts of the Loliondo Game Controlled Area in order to attract animals from Serengeti National Park.
These allegations are baseless since the Tourist Hunting Regulations (2000) prohibit distribution of water and salt at the Hunting site in order to attract animals for Hunting. Besides the Game Scouts who supervise Hunting had never reported this episode. Furthermore, there are no reports that OBC is responsible for wild fires that gutters the south of the Serengeti National Park.
4.6.5 Cancellation of OBC block permit in 1999 since it was involved in the exportation of live animals.
This allegation is not true. The truth is that Hunting blocks are allocated to Hunting companies after every five years. The allocation that was done in 1995 expired in 1999. The next allocation was done in year 2000 and the companies will use the allocated blocks until 2004.
4.6.6 The UAE Royal Family contributions to the Wildlife Division
This is true. The Wildlife Division had received support from the UAE including: vehicles, transceivers and field gear in 1996. This was part of the fulfilment of the obligation by all Hunting companies to contribute towards conservation and anti-poaching activities.
Records in the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism show that there is no other District in Tanzania with Hunting area, other than Ngorongoro District, that receives enormous funds from Hunting business for community development. OBC contributes up to TSh. 354,967,000.00 annually for community development in Loliondo.
The Government of Tanzania has no reasons to stop the Hunting activities in Loliondo Game Controlled Area. The government sees that local communities and the Ngorongoro District Council benefit from the Hunting industry.
Edited by - lifer on 04/16/2002 20:57:41
Extract Author: Mustafa Leu
Extract Date: July 27 2002
ISSN 0856-9135; No. 00230
A Pastoralists representative in Ngorongoro District has asked the Government to revoke the hunting concession granted to Ortello Business Corporation allegedly because the company has failed to fulfil its pledges to communities in the area.
Mr. Raphael Ole Leng'oi, Councillor for the Loliondo Ward expressed his concern over the implementation of what was earlier promised when the company started its hunting operations in Loliondo.
Ole Len’goi was speaking in an interview with this reporter after participating in a workshop on wildlife laws and policies. The workshop was organized under the auspices of Journalists Environmental Association of Tanzania (JET).
The Ortello Business Corporation, a firm owned by Major General Mohamed Abdulrahim Al Ali of United Arab Emirates, was granted a hunting concession for the Loliondo area early 1993. In the contract signed in November 1992 by Mr. Ahmed Saeed Abdulrahaman Al-Khateeb on behalf of the Major General, the firm's obligation was to construct primary schools, dispensaries, excavate boreholes, cattle troughs and build village road networks.
Mr. Leng'oi complained that since the promises were not fulfilled, the peasants and Pastoralists in the area were still compelled to travel long distances in search of water. He said water is sold at Shs. 300 per container of 20 litres.
The Councillor, who was with the Pastoralists disputed the move of the investor to construct another airstrip at Mambarashani, on the Serengeti Plains while it has ignored the implementation of the agreed community development projects.
The villagers have insisted that the government should rescind the contract with the Corporation Six villages in Nogorongoro namely Olorien Magaidum, Oloipir, Soiti Sambu, Ololosokwan, Maalon and Arash. have contracts with Ortello. Mr. Lengoi lamented that the Pastoralists have no area allocated for grazing their livestock. He, thus, implored the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism to abstain from valuing wildlife more than human beings. He said that they were in the area even before the area was declared as a conserved area in 1928. “ We are the real protectors of the wildlife”, he said.
Extract Author: Yannick Ndoinyo
Extract Date: 17 august 2002
ISSN 0856-9135; No. 00233
A rejoinder to the Ministry’s press release on Loliondo and OBC
We are replying in a critical analysis to the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism Press Release in the East African paper of April 1-7 2002 regarding the "Game Carnage in Tanzania Alarms Kenya" in the same paper (East Africa February 4-10 2002). Special reference was given to Hunting activities by OBC and our analysis base to same Company.
As it appears in the Press Release, OBC is the property of the UAE, but in reality some top influential people in Tanzania have some shares in the company. The OBC has been in Loliondo since 1992, even though ever since the whole local community in Loliondo refused to accept its presence and goes to the present day. OBC, to us, is not a normal Hunting company. It seems as if the Company has the right of ownership over land and other natural resources like water and wildlife. OBC has constructed expensive and luxurious houses, airstrip and big godowns on water source without the local people’s authority while they depend on such water for dry season grazing. Our surprise is that the government has always denied this fact and defended the Company. Why? The Company may be adhering to regulations and laws governing the tourist Hunting business in the books only and not practically. There are no monitoring schemes to make sure that the Company adheres to the said regulations.
It is true that OBC contributes 30 million to six villages, which is 5 million per village, and it was initially 2.5 million per village. The amount was raised two years ago. The issue here is that the amount was determined by OBC alone and therefore paid when they feel like doing, no binding mechanisms to endure payment on regular basis. The former OBC director was once quoted as saying, "I am paying this money as this money as a goodwill only because the government does not wish me to do so". The amount however does not compensate or match the resources extracted from the land of six villages. The implication is that OBC has entered into agreement with the government only and not with the villages. The provision of education to 21 children as indicated the Press release, is basically not true or correct.
The 30 million is the annual goodwill contribution from OBC to the six villages and not purposely meant for education only. The plan to utilize this money is upon the villages themselves.
It is also true that OBC has constructed Wasso secondary school but not Wasso primary school. The secondary school, which was built for the six villages in which OBC operated and the whole of Ngorongoro district has been taken by the government thus limiting the number of children hailing from these villages and Ngorongoro district an opportunity to obtain education from the same school.
In regard to bore holes, there are only four known boreholes and all these are built in Wasso and Loliondo townships. There are no any boreholes existing in any of the six villages, except only that a water pump machine, which currently does not work, was purchased for Mondorosi hamlet (Kitongoji) of Soit-Sambu village. Again, there is no virtually any cattle dip that OBC did dig or rehabilitated in six villages as mentioned in the Press Release from the Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism. The information that OBC purchased a generator and water pump worth 11million is to six villages for water provision is false and misleading. Most villages in Loliondo have water problems and it is impossible for a generator to sustain a single village leave alone six villages. No single village has received such service from OBC.
In regard to transport, the two buses were either bought or just brought as second hand vehicles. These buses are expensive to run and spares are not easily obtained. At present they are just grounded at Ngorongoro district workshop/garage. There was a time the councilors debated whether or not to sell because of difficult management. At present the people of Loliondo use an extremely old SM bus for transport.
Again in the aspect of transport, there are no all weather roads in Loliondo that OBC constructed as it was said the Press release. Roads in most parts of Loliondo are murramed roads and mostly were constructed by Ngongoro district council using money from TANROADS and not OBC.
It is indeed true that OBC Hunting period is very short. There is a lot that can happen in short period especially if the team of hunters is composed of professional hunters. Our concern here is the interference and interruptions that OBC causes to the life systems of the people in Loliondo. The Maasai cannot resume their grazing patterns and often are forced to move by OBC. Where should we graze our cattle while our grazing land is occupied and by the Hunting company and protected by the gun? In six villages of Loliondo, five operate non-consumptive tourism that gives them more earnings except one which is dominated by OBC. The villages can now send children to school, construct basic infrastructure like health centers, classrooms, teacher houses water supply and food security ultimately eradicating poverty. This is all done using the money from the non-consumptive tourism. The OBC constantly interrupts this system and agreement between in the villages saying that the villages have no right to operate such tourism on ‘his land’. Is it his or our land? The other major problem besides the Arabs is the constant reprimand from the government, as it discourages this kind of tourism business that benefits the local people in the villages more. We favour this kind of tourism because it does not disturb our normal pattern of life system. At the same time it does not kill wild animals, they just camp and go to the Serengeti Park. The allegations that OBC airplanes fly directly from Loliondo to UAE without passing KIA and whether it exports live animals have existed and many people have spoken and written about it. However, we cannot confirm anything about without much scrutiny. We do not know much now.
Also in the Press Release the spray of salt to attract animals was referred to. The distribution of water in a certain site to attract animals was applied sometime ago. We are sure of this as it happened some years ago. What we are not exact is whether the practice continues to the present day.
In the Press Release, the records in the Ministry show that OBC pays annually 354,967,000/= for community development in Loliondo? We have some reservations in regard to such records. First of all they are just records and anything can be written. Secondly, how is it that the Ministry has such records while we in Loliondo, the base of OBC operation, do not have?
Thirdly, where is the provision in the agreement that forces OBC to annually pay to the district such amount of money? It may be that the amount is used to be paid annually but to individuals only and not to the district as it said.
In its conclusion the Ministry sees no reason to stop Hunting activities in Loliondo simply because the local community and Ngorongoro district council benefit from the Hunting business. We strongly feel that there is every reason to stop the Hunting activities in Loliondo for several reasons. First, the local community did not consent to the granting of their land to the Hunting company to the present day.
Secondly, the local community and Ngorongoro district council do not benefit in a way it should be from this Hunting business in Loliondo.
Thirdly, the presence of OBC has interrupted and interfered with our life systems including grazing, culture and other alternative means of business to the local community.
In our conclusion we feel that even though the government operates under the law set in Dar es Salaam and Dodoma without the involvement of the local people, it is very important to respect the localpeople.
Someone in the ministry who has never been to Loliondo, we firmly conclude, either wrote the Press Release, or the story was made. We suggest that the villagers or OBC people be contacted for more definite facts. Please feel free to contact us for any queries you might have regarding this article.
Tel: 0744 390 626
The East African
Extract Author: John Mbaria
Extract Date: December 2, 2002
The East African (Nairobi) Posted to the web December 4, 2002
.. .. ..
Unlike in Kenya, the law in Tanzania promotes commercial wildlife utilisation activities such as safari Hunting and actually prohibits photographic tourism in areas declared as Hunting zones.
Under the WCA of 1974, the wildlife division can only regulate the capture, Hunting and commercial photography of wildlife.
The report adds that the director of wildlife can issue Hunting licences on village land, but he "does not have the power to give a hunter or Hunting company authority to hunt on village land without the permission of the village government."
On their part, the licensed persons are expected to seek the permission of the village government before engaging in any Hunting. However, reports indicate that the practice of safari Hunting has so far ignored this law. The report says that most Hunting companies put up facilities on village lands without the permission of the village government and the respective village assemblies.
The report gives the example of the Loliondo GCA, in Loliondo division of Ngorongoro district, where a Hunting company associated with a United Arab Emirates minister, "has built an airstrip and several large houses without the permission of the relevant village governments."
"Such actions are contrary to the VLA which, under section 17, requires any non-village organisation that intends to use any portion of the village land to apply for that land to the village council, which will then forward that application and its recommendation for approval or rejection to the Commissioner for Land."
In January, The EastAfrican published an exclusive story on the manner with which the Hunting company conducts Hunting activities in Loliondo.
.. .. ..
Extract Author: Indigenous Rights for Survival International
Page Number: a
Extract Date: 2/1/03
I could not help but write this letter (see attachment [extract 3733]) to the President of The United Republic of Tanzania, Mr. Mkapa, urging him to STOP the killing fields of Loliondo.
As a Tanzanian, I have a moral obligation to rise concerns over the negative impacts on Maasai communities, wildlife, and their shared habitat of the Otterlo Business Corporation (OBC), a United Arab Emirates hunting company operating in the Loliondo Game Controlled Area in northern Tanzania. With a full support from the Government of Tanzania, OBC is grossly violating fundamental human rights as well as undermining the stability of the region’s wildlife and natural habitats in Loliondo, Ngorongoro District.
Perhaps you are willing and able to help, discuss, advise the Government to stop the said crime. I understand the power of the press, so the letter can be published if possible. Otherwise you can forward it to as many people and organizations as you can.
I am at your disposal in case of comments and questions.
Thank you very much in advance.
Navaya ole Ndaskoi
P.O. Box 13357
Dar Es Salaam
Extract Author: Indigenous Rights for Survival International
Page Number: b
Extract Date: 2/1/03
[click on the link to see the original MS Word document]
Indigenous Rights for Survival International
P.O. Box 13357
Dar Es Salaam.
Alternative E-mail: email@example.com
The United Republic of Tanzania
P.O. Box 9120
Dar Es Salaam.
If it pleases the Honourable President Benjamin Mkapa
Re: Stop the killing fields of Loliondo
I am a Tanzanian citizen, a strong believer in social justice. Under the same spirit I am the Co-coordinator of an informal group called Indigenous Rights for Survival International (IRSI). IRSI is a loose network of young people with an interest in public policy issues in Africa. We mainly discuss policy issues through emails communications and ultimately write articles in the press. IRSI as an entity takes no position on any of the discussed issues instead it simply stimulates, steers, and co-ordinates discussions and debates on public policy issues of members’ interest.
Mr. President, I have all along believed that you can stop the crime against humanity being inflicted upon the people of Loliondo, Ngorongoro District of Arusha Region by a no less authority than the Government of Tanzania.
Mr. President, Loliondo Division is located in Maasai ancestral lands in the northern part of Tanzania along the common border with Kenya. It borders the Ngorongoro highlands to the south, Serengeti National Park to the west, and the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya to the north. The Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LCGA) encompasses an estimated 4,000 sq km. There is no physical barrier separating the LGCA from other protected areas. It is a continuous ecosystem. LGCA was initially established in 1959 as a Game Reserve by the British colonialists under the then Fauna Conservation Ordinance, Section 302, a legal instrument the colonial authorities used to set aside portions of land for wildlife conservation. The legal status of the reserve was later changed to that of a Game Controlled Area to allow for commercial Hunting, a status that defines LGCA today and haunts its wildlife.
Mr. President, Loliondo forms an important part of the semi-annual migratory route of millions of wildebeests and other ungulates northward into the Maasai Mara Game Reserve and Amboseli National Park in Kenya between April and June, and returning southward later in the year. The survival of the Ngorongoro-Serengeti-Maasai Mara ecosystem and the wildlife it supports is linked to the existence of Loliondo and other surrounding communal Maasai lands in Tanzania and Kenya. Similarly, the survival of the Maasai people is dependent entirely upon the protection of their ancestral land for economic viability and cultural reproduction. Land to the Maasai is the foundation for their spirituality and the base for identity.
Mr. President, the people of Ngorongoro District in general and Loliondo Division in particular have suffered for a long time various established pains such as irrational grabbing of their ancestral land for “development”, tourism (consumptive and non-consumptive) and cultivation. While the people of Loliondo have lost much of their ancestral land to cultivation, the Government is evidently supporting private investors to further put Maasai pastoralists of Loliondo at a very awkward corner.
In 1992, the administration of the former president Ali Hassan Mwinyi granted the entire Loliondo Game Controlled Area (LGCA) as a Hunting concession to the Otterlo Business Corporation Ltd (OBC), a game-Hunting firm based in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The Government issued a 10-year Hunting permit, under the controversial agreement, to the Brigadier Mohammed Abdulrahim Al-Ali, believed to be a member of the royal family of the UAE, of Abu Dhabi in the UAE who owns (OBC). The grabbed land is a birthright land of thousands of villagers of Arash, Soitsambu, Oloipiri, Ololosokwan, Loosoito and Oloirien villages of Loliondo.
Mr. President, a Parliamentary Committee was formed to probe the Loliondo Gate saga. It revoked the dirty agreement. Strangely, a similar agreement was established.
In January 2000, OBC was granted another 5-year Hunting permit in the said area. As usual, without the villagers’ consent. OBC constructed an airstrip. The villagers have been witnessing live animals being exported through the airstrip. OBC constructed structures near water sources. Hearing of the new permit, the Maasai sent a 13-men protest delegation to Dar Es Salaam in April 2000. The intention was to sort out the matter with you Mr. President. Unfortunately, they did not see you.
However, the delegation managed to hold a press conference at MAELEZO, National Information Corporation Centre. The Maasai contemplated a number of actions to be taken against both your Government and the Arab in connection with the plunder of the resources. The Maasai said that before a mass exodus of the Maasai to Kenya the first thing was to eliminate wild animals. Thereafter, the delegation retreated to Loliondo, as gravely frustrated as before.
The general election was scheduled for 2000, so the saga had to be explained away. The official statement was that power hungry opposition politicians were pushing the elders and that all the claims by the Maasai were “unfounded” and “baseless.” To its credit, The Guardian went to Loliondo. It reported the following:
Maasai elders in Loliondo, Arusha Region, who recently declared a land dispute against OBC Ltd, a foreign game-Hunting firm, have accused some top Government officials of corrupt practices, saying the conflict is not political. The Arusha Regional Commissioner, Daniel ole Njoolay, recently described the simmering land dispute between the Maasai pastoralists and OBC, as a political issue.
Francis Shomet [the former Chairman for Ngorongoro District Council] claimed that Njoolay had misled Tanzanians to believe that the allegations recently raised by Maasai elders were unfounded and baseless. Fidelis Kashe, Ngorongoro District Council Chairman maintained, “We cannot stand idle to see our land being taken away by Arabs. We will kill all the animals in the area as these are the ones attracting the Arabs into our land” (The Guardian May 30, 2000).
The next morning Government officials were reported to have said the following:
The Minister for Natural Resources and Tourism, Zakia Meghji, yesterday assured Ngorongoro residents that no land has been sold or grabbed by Arabs in Loliondo. Flanked by the Arusha Regional Commissioner, Daniel ole Njoolay and the Director of Wildlife, Emanuel Severre, Meghji commented, “There is no clause on the sale of land in the contract signed between OBC and the six villages of Ololosokwan, Arash, Maaloni, Oloirien, Oloipiri and Soitsambu.”
However an inquiry conducted by The Guardian in Loliondo last week established that the Maasai elders were not involved in the re-lease of the Hunting block to the company. According to Megji, her probe established that the building has been constructed about 400 metres from the water source, 200 metres more than the distance recommended by law. But The Guardian investigation shows that the structures are less than 50 metres from a spring. And another spring has dried up (The Guardian May 31, 2000).
Mr. President, underline two points. First, the Minister said the building has been constructed 400 metres from the water source. Second, “The Guardian investigation shows that the structures are less than 50 metres from a spring.” Now unless one’s mathematics teacher at school was daft, there is a huge different between 50 and 400! When did 50 metric metres turn to mean 400 metric metres? Can it be claimed that the Maasai were party to this so-called agreement? I am at a loss why this-well known-Minister has not been made to face the full force of the law.
In the proposal, Brigadier Al Ali outlined the benefits of his operations in Loliondo to the Government, local communities, and wildlife conservation in the Serengeti-Maasai Mara-Ngorongoro ecosystem. Among its important objectives were:
• To conserve an area contiguous to the Serengeti National Park, which is essential to the long-term survival of the ecosystem and its migration.
• To develop a new role and image for the Arab world as regards wildlife conservation, management, and human development.
• To improve locals’ revenue, development facilities, and create employment.
• To generate revenues for the Central and District Governments.
The OBC now stands accused of self-contradiction and violation of legal and moral obligations in virtually all the above areas, resulting instead in environmental destruction; unfulfilled promises and exploitation of the local communities; and direct undermining of the stability of the region’s wildlife and natural habitats.
It has become evident that OBC had a long-term agenda for exploiting the high concentration of wildlife in Loliondo. Its Hunting operations are guaranteed by the continuous flow of wildlife from the Serengeti, Ngorongoro, Maasai Mara, and other areas. According to the International Union for Conservation of Nature, OBC "was taking advantage of migratory patterns of wildlife coming out of Serengeti."
Mr. President, be informed that the villages in and adjacent to protected areas in Tanzania have no Government-supported infrastructures. Take Ngorongoro District for instance. There is no Government hospital in Ngorongoro. It may take a week to travel from Arusha to Loliondo, just less than 400 km, depending on weather, for there is no road. There is no even a single Government advanced level secondary education school in six (repeat six) Districts in the Greater Serengeti Region. This situation brings to question the legitimacy of wildlife conservation vis-à-vis the right of rural people to lead a decent life given nature endowment in their localities.
Mr. President, the Maasai of Loliondo have for a long time accused OBC of grave human rights abuses. They have described acts of intimidation, harassment, arbitrary arrest and detention, and even torture by OBC staff, Tanzanian police and military in the name of OBC; brazen violations of grazing and land rights; and wanton environmental destruction and imminent extermination of wildlife. They have seen leaders who once opposed OBC’s practices corrupted and bought-off.
The OBC operates like a separate arm of the Government. Many people in Loliondo believe that OBC is even more powerful than the Government. The Maa word for "the Arab", Olarrabui, is often used to refer Brigadier Al Ali, and by extension OBC. The word Olarrabui has become synonymous with power, authority, brutality, fear, and entities larger than life.
Mr. President, you do not need to be a rocket scientist to comprehend that this is the clearest case of abuse of office. It is suggested, for those willing to avert disaster, the Tanzania Government included, that immediate steps be taken to put to an end the violation of fundamental human rights in Ngorongoro. As to lands lost in Loliondo, the Government is advised to return this to its owners. Land should not be grabbed senselessly. The Government, should at once, re-look into the whole matter.
Navaya ole Ndaskoi.
- The International Court of Justice
- The United Nations High Commission for Human Rights
- The United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations
- Human Rights Groups around the World
- Faculty of Law of the University of Dar Es Salaam
- Local and International Conservation Agencies
- Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources
- The Attorney General
- The Chief Justice
- The Speaker of the United Republic of Tanzania Parliament
- The Press, print and electronic
- Political parties in Tanzania
- Tanganyika Law Society
- Other interested parties.
Navaya ole Ndaskoi
see also Extract 3734
The Maasai protest delegation holding a press conference in Dar Es Salaam in 2000
Extract Author: Indigenous Rights for Survival International
Page Number: c
Extract Date: 2/1/03
IPP Media - including the Guardian
Extract Author: Adam Ihucha, Arusha
Extract Date: 30 Oct 2004
A fresh round of fighting between Maasai and Sonjo tribesmen in Ngorongoro District has left two people dead.
Arusha Regional Police Commander James Kombe confirmed yesterday that clashes had erupted afresh in Sale Village where a number of houses had also been set ablaze.
He said the fighting broke out after the Sonjo accused the Maasai of stealing six head of cattle from Sonjo herdsmen.
People believed to be Maasai morans (warriors) allegedly drove the cattle off when they raided the homesteads of Sonjo tribesmen identified as Kadir Gandisi and Surambaya Sayembe.
Sonjo tribesmen followed the animals’ tracks and traced them to a boma belonging to Patareto Kikonya in Arash Village.
The irate Sonjo men allegedly shot Kikonya to death with arrows before torching five houses in the village.
Having accomplished their mission in Arash Village, the Sonjo tribesmen went to Maloni Village where they attacked villagers and torched some houses, Kombe said.
A Maasai elder, identified as Olekungu ole Onyokite, was reportedly burnt to death in one of the houses.
Kombe said hundreds of people had been left homeless as a result of the violence which was quelled by a unit of regular and riot police sent to the area.
Two people were arrested in connection with the clashes. They are Makandoma Simon, 23, and Barannobi Charles, 27, both residents of Sale Village.
Kombe said more police officers had been sent to the area to ensure that the violence did not recur.
The latest violence erupted just four weeks after the two ethnic groups clashed in Loliondo, Ngorongoro District, leaving scores of people seriously wounded and tens more homeless.
The first serious confrontation between the Maasai and Sonjo this year took place in July in Kisangiro Village, Ngorongoro District.
One person was killed in the clashes.
Extract Author: By Our Correspondents
Page Number: 353
Extract Date: 22 Jan 2005
The Maasai and Sonjo tribes have agreed to bury their ages-old hostilities after the recent violent clashes that claimed human lives and destruction of property worth millions of shillings.
A meeting convened by the Arusha regional leadership last week in Loliondo, which involved traditional leaders of both communities, resolved that tribal clashes between the two groups should now come to an end.
An accord to end hostility and violent clashes between them was signed by 25 elders from each side in the presence of the Regional Commissioner Mohamed Babu, Ngorongoro District Commissioner Captain Asseri Msangi, District Executive Director Nicholas Kileka, village leaders and conflict resolution experts from the Irish embassy in Dar es Salaam.
Violent clashes between the two neighbouring groups erupted last June over grazing land and livestock theft. Accounts by villagers interviewed by journalists who visited the area recently indicated that some individuals were killed, scores injured, many families uprooted after their houses were torched and livestock forcibly driven away.
Many people have been killed since 1880s in violent clashes pitting the Maasai, a cattle herding tribe which constitutes 80 per cent of Ngorongoro district's population of 140,000 and a tiny but fierce Sonjo tribe whose population is estimated to be 14,000.
It was agreed at a two-day meeting that the boundaries of all 37 villages in the district be re-drawn in order to avoid further clashes on grazing and farming areas for the two tribes.
The meeting resolved that livestock theft one of the main sources of the age-old conflict, should come to an end forthwith and that the police and other security organs should intensify security in Salle and Loliondo divisions to ensure there was no recurrence of bloody fighting.
The Regional Commissioner said the government would assist people rebuild their houses and cattle bomas which were torched during the clashes but insisted that there would be no compensation for property lost or destroyed and for people injured or killed.
Extract Author: Arusha Times Reporter
Page Number: 367
Extract Date: 30 April 2005
Fresh outbreaks of the notorious tribal clashes between Maasai and Sonjo tribes in Loliondo location of Ngorongoro district erupted again last week despite two peace agreements that were signed by leaders of both factions in a period of just six months.
The Arusha Acting Regional Police Commander, Godfrey Nzowa, said one person has been killed in the clashes. The fights razed the Oldonyosambu village where hundreds were injured and over 30 houses reduced to ashes.
Nzowa, who is also the Regional Crime Officer, named the deceased person as Kanusha Tungasi a 20-year old man from Jema village. Two seriously injured persons, who have been admitted at the Kilimanjaro Christian Medial Centre (KCMC) are: Kanyodori Kasunga (50) and William Samawa (25) all from the Sonjo ethnic group.
"When police arrived at the scene, the fighters from both sides escaped into the forest," Said Nzowa , adding that the situation in the village was somewhat calm at the moment.
Reports from Loliondo indicate that fresh clashes had erupted after the Maasai moranis from the Loita clan, allegedly invaded the Sonjo territory and stole therein, herds of cattle. The cattle have been recovered during the fight.
Clashes between the Loita clan of the Maasai and the Butime minority ethnic group popularly known as Sonjo, date back to the 18th century, but has erupted twice last year, claiming lives of five people, injuring others and reducing about 400 houses to ashes.
The rival ethnic groups, tried to end their cattle rustling and land disputes when 25 leaders from each faction signed a peace accord brokered by the Arusha Regional Commissioner, Mohamed Babu, in collaboration with the Ngorongoro District Commissioner, Mr Assery Msangi, the District Executive Director (DED), Mr Nicholaus Kileka, traditional leaders and experts from the Irish Embassy.
The agreement followed a two-day meeting held at the Ngorongoro District Council hall during which the two sides agreed to bury the hatchet, conduct a seminar on the new Land Act and to appoint a committee to supervise land demarcation for 37 villages involved in the conflict.
Both sides also agreed during the meeting that the two ethnic groups would have equal representation in the decision making machinery of the area, improving infrastructure of the area and improving security of the area so as to find a lasting solution for cattle rustling between the two ethnic groups.
No compensation was to be paid to lives or property lost as a result of the conflict and the government had been asked to put in place pipe water infrastructure in all affected areas.
A goodwill committee comprising members from both sides was to be appointed to educate the Loliondo residents on the peace deal and to convene regular meetings aimed at cultivating good neighbourhood relations among the Masai and Wasonjo.
The ethnic groups had in February this year signed their latest agreement to end the conflicts, which since 1880 are believed to have claimed about 5,000 lives.
The first agreement was reached mid September last year when 20 leaders from each faction converged for four days at the Sokoine University of Agriculture (SUA) Arusha campus in Ngaramtoni.
Representatives stormed out in disagreement at certain times during the SUA reconciliation talks, compelling the mediators, RC Babu, the Minister for Water and Livestock Development, Edward Lowasa, the Member of Parliament for Loliondo constituency, Mr Matthew Ole Timany, and other district leaders to split them into two working groups to tackle sensitive issues.