Bishop Stanway

Name ID 1988

See also

Nettelbeck, David A history of Arusha School, Tanzania
Page Number: 31b

a. CHURCH AND STATE: A STRANGE PARTNERSHIP:

The church management of a Government school in 1934 was unusual, but understandable in the light of the depression economy and the existing policy with regard to voluntary agencies. It is less easy to understand the continuing influence of the church in the Arusha School management after 1946.

Arusha School was owned, financed and administered in exactly the same way as the Junior European School, Dar es Salaam, Mbeya School, opened in 1942, and Kongwa School, opened in 1951. The teaching staff were, in all four schools, Government Officers recruited through the Crown Agents in London; final responsibility rested with the Department of Education and, after 1949, the European Education Authority. The establishment of an Arusha School Council in 1946 may be seen as a forerunner of the Government's policy in the late 1950s to have local Boards of Governors for all Government schools so that the schools could more effectively relate to their community.

Be that as it may, it does not explain the appointment of the Bishop as Warden of the school and Chairman of the Board, the virtual right of the Bishop to veto the appointment of staff, the appointment of a Chaplain/Master at the Government's expense, and the Council itself which was theoretically appointed by the Director of Education, but in fact was made up predominantly of the Bishop's nominees. Even in 1970, more than half the Board of Governors were regularly worshipping local Anglicans. Bishop Stanway, Chairman of the Council and later of the Board of Governors from 1951 to 1971 claims that the rights of the church were exercised with great discretion; the fact remains that the rights did exist.

The first Government appointee as Headmaster was Cyril Hamshere (M.A. Cantab) who was born in East Africa and whose father Archdeacon J.E. Hamshere had been Principal of the Diocesan Training College for pastors and teachers up to his retirement in 1928, when Wynn Jones took over from him. The missionaries who withdrew in 1946 from the staff hoped that through Hamshere, a personal if no longer official link between the Diocese and Government would be retained.

The Headmaster was answerable to the Department of Education, and the School Council had no official role or direct authority. Their main function seems to have been to care for property, recommend maintenance, and extensions or addition, ensure that there was sufficient staff appointed and so on. With Dar es, Salaam 500 miles away and communications difficult, it is not unreasonable to expect that officials would be guided by a responsible local body and would take more notice of such a group than of direct representations from parents or requests from the Headmaster.

In 1952, when the Chaplain Casson resigned, the Council recorded its profound conviction that the appointment of a suitable chaplain-master to the staff of Arusha school “is of paramount importance in these difficult days in East Africa. In view of the importance of the post, no appointment should be made without consultation with the Warden of the School and the Director of Education”.

In 1956, the Headmaster sought advice on the enrolment of a part Arab, part European boy and the Director of Education replied that “it would be inappropriate for him to be admitted. to an essentially Christian school”. On the speech day in 1955, the Vice Chairman of the Council, A.T. Bewes, reminded the children of the well-founded Christian traditions of the school, which he hoped they would observe throughout their lives".

In assessing this unusual church/state relationship, we must recognise that even the total effort in European education was still a very minor part of the Department of Education's responsibility, that neither the Government nor the parents objected to the relationship continuing, that the power of veto over the appointment of staff was never actually used, and that the "religious life" of the school was not unlike that in a State school in Britain. It would appear also that the very presence of a School Council, a visible and tangible body, gave the school a stability and sense of continuity which was apparently lacking at Mbeya and Kongwa.

I would like to point out that the opening date for Kongwa School in this article is incorrect, the correct date is 4th October 1948

Glynn Ford

27 Jan 2005

Extract ID: 4936

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See also

Nettelbeck, David A history of Arusha School, Tanzania
Page Number: 64
Extract Date: 28 Feb 1959

APPENDIX D AGREEMENT 28TH FEBRUARY 1952

(for full details of this section click on the link on the right, and search for the appropriate page.)

AN AGREEMENT made the twenty eighth day of February 1959, Between Arthur John Grattan-Bellew, Companion of the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, Chief Secretary to the Government of Tanganyika (hereinafter referred to as "the Governor which expression shall include the person for the time being holding or acting in the office of Chief Secretary) for and on behalf of the Government aforesaid of the one part and "the Right Reverend Alfred Stanway, Bishop of Central Tanganyika" on behalf of the Diocese of Central Tanganyika (hereinafter referred to as "the Diocese") of the other part.

Extract ID: 4951

See also

Nettelbeck, David A history of Arusha School, Tanzania
Page Number: 45b

c. UNDER NEW MANAGEMENT:

The plan to integrate the three-tiered education structure was clear and necessary, but when it came to the point that the European Education Authority was to be abolished, the question then was, who would finance and manage the school?

The Permanent Secretary of the Department of Education, Cameron, called Bishop Stanway as Chairman of the School Council and a member of the European Education Authority to Dar es Salaam in July 1961 to discuss the existing agreement (Appendix D) between the Diocese and tile Government with regard to Arusha School. He particularly queried the clause in the agreement stating that the school was for European children, the new responsibility of local authorities for primary education, the membership of the School Council and the continued appointment of a Chaplain-Master.

As a result of this and other meetings, the school reverted to a status similar to that of 1934. The Government would continue to own the build", approve the rate of fees and overall expenditure, and directly employ some of the staff. It would in addition pay a grant-in-aid for an approved establishment of teaching; staff and matrons and give a grant for equipment on to same basis as a Swahili - medium school. Management responsibility for collecting fees, employing local staff etc. was vested in a Board of Governors appointed by the Minister of Education with the Bishop of the Diocese as ex-officio chairman. The agreement. is detailed in Appendix E. What happened in fact was that the former advisory School Council was given full management powers within certain guidelines laid down by the Government.

By the end of the 1960s, British aid no longer flowed to Tanzania, the. salary supplement scheme dried up and with it the source of British teachers. The last under the scheme arrived in 1968. The school was still operated as before with the modification of a multi-national intake and a heavy reliance on local and part time staff. However full time expatriates were still needed. So in 1969 a C.M.S. Missionary, Miss G. Allen joined the staff on temporary Government terms and the cheap labour force began to return. The clock had turned full circle.

Extract ID: 4947
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