Kilwa

Name ID 298

See also

Amin, Mohamed; Willetts, Duncan and Marshall, Peter Journey Through Tanzania
Page Number: 012

Active colonisation

Active colonisation did not begin until the 8th century when Arab settlers began building towns on Zanzibar, Mafia and Kilwa. Around 1200, a group of 'Shirazi' - people who traced their ancestors to Shiraz in Persia - settled and founded new dynasties.

Extract ID: 1132

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xvii
Extract Date: 1502, July 14

Vasco da Gama pays a second visit to Kilwa

In command of 10 ships, Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama pays a second visit to Kilwa and, on behalf of Portugal, imposes liability to tribute.

Extract ID: 1185

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xvii
Extract Date: 1505 July 24

Francisco de Almedia storms Kilwa

Francisco de Almedia, in command of eight Portuguese ships, storms Kilwa and subsequently begins construction of a fort.

Extract ID: 1187

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 02e


With the Portuguese invasion in the 15th century, Kilwa declined and in 1587 the Zimba, a warrior people from the Zambezi Valley, massacred the whole population.

Extract ID: 3992

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 12

Slavery

Slavery always existed in Africa as part of a social system but trade started with Arab raiders arriving around the 9th century to take Africans to markets in Mesopotamia, India, Persia and Arabia. In the 19th century slave trading was a flourishing commercial practice with regular and massive deportations organised by Arab slavers helped by local tribes such as the Nyamwezi who became their redoubtable partners. The most renowned Arab trader was Tippu Tip (Hemedi bin Muhammad el Marjebi), born in Zanzibar, who at 18 began slave and ivory trading between the interior and coastal towns, and by 1880 he had built a large commercial empire between the Upper Congo, Lake Tanganyika and Bagamoyo on the coast, where the slaves were shipped-off to Zanzibar for sale to foreign merchants. In East Africa all the main routes, such as the above, lay in Tanganyika: a route in the North passed through Karagwe and North of Lake Victoria and divided to head north to Bunyoro and north-east towards Buganda. A less frequented route in the south exploited by the Yao, led from Lake Nyasa to Kilwa.

The movement to abolish the slave trade started in England after publication of John Wesley's Thought upon Slavery in 1774 followed by Scottish economist Adam Smith's work The Wealth of Nations published in 1776. The latter laid to rest once and for all the 200 year-old economic belief that slave labour was cheaper than free men's work.

It still took more than a century for Slavery to be totally abolished. The Moresby Treaty in 1822, the Hamerton Treaty in 1845 and finally on 5th June 1873 the treaty signed between the British Consul in Zanzibar, Sir John Kirk, and Sultan Barghash made slave trading illegal. By 1889 all former slaves were declared free men and the status of slave was abolished in 1907 in British East Africa. Compensation claims, the last step to offset the intricate human-economic impact brought about by the abolition, were not considered after 31 December 1911.

In Tanganyika the status lasted another 15 years until the end of German rule when the country became a British Protectorate in 1922.

Extract ID: 216

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 06a
Extract Date: 1890

Armed opposition

Before the ink of the last agreement had dried, armed opposition in the German sphere was instant and relentless; it went on for nearly 20 uninterrupted years.

In 1888 at the coast, Bushiri bin Salim who had fought for years against the Zanzibar sultans, rose against the Germans and drove them out of all major coastal towns. Imperial Commissioner Captain von Wissmann stormed Bagamoyo in 1889 and captured Bushiri who was hanged in December.

Bwana Heri and his Zigua tribe continued resistance but, unable to withstand the German assaults, surrendered in April 1890. Unrest spread South and in 1890 Kilwa put up strong resistance under Hassan bin Omari Makunganya who was captured in May and hung from a mango tree in Kilwa Kivinje. Chief Machemba of the Yao defied the Germans also in 1890 and it took 9 years to force him to negotiate peace.

In 1891 resistance along the coast ended and in the wake of their reconquest, the Germans forced the Sultan of Zanzibar to sell his coastal strip for 200,000.

Extract ID: 4023

See also

Africa News Online
Extract Date: 2000 January 14

Historical sites in Tanzania on verge of collapse

Copyright (c) 2000 TOMRIC Agency.

Although the Minister for Tourism and Natural Resources Zakia Meghji witnessed more than 2000 tourists delight in Tanzania's natural heritage in the Mount Kilimanjaro Top 2000 Expedition, ancient sites with similar potential lay unattended.

Trusted with preserving Tanzania's cultural heritage, the department of antiquities under Minister Meghji is grossly under-staffed and under-funded.

'If we want to improve the department we must have the new approach,' says Mr. Donatus Kamamba, the acting director of antiquities.

He says despite the fact that the department has 117 sites to view all over the country, it has 63 workers only, mostly supporting staff.

According to him, not more than 10 are qualified individuals who can stay at a station and map out the strategies for development of the traditional legacy they are trusted to preserve.

'In the whole of Tanzania for example, there are only three qualified Architectural conservators, that is experts who deal with maintenance and preservation of old buildings,' says Mr. Kamamba, adding, 'at the department's headquarters in Dar Es Salaam, there is only one vehicle.'

He adds, the modest USD 30,000 budget the department projected last year to maintain all its stations was 'very moderate intended'

'At present the antiquities department is regarded as a unit, meant for serving a small area, which means that we get less staff, less facilities and less fund,' he laments.

Despite the efforts made by the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, to market Tanzania's attractions in oversees, there is no similar efforts being made to invest in the sector.

On his observation, a successful Mount Kilimanjaro Expedition, in which the Kilimanjaro National Park had pumped in USD 375, 000 equivalent in extensive preparations that has enabled it to net USD 750000, need to be replicated by other organizations.

The director says over 117 stations, only about 20 had at least enough staff and were attended to, with the rest either under-staffed or languishing unattended.

Kamamba notes that at present, the repair of the stations has been going on at the snails pace - about one station each year - due to lack of funds.

'At this rate, it will take almost 117 years to maintain all of them,' he says.

Among the transferred departments are the National Museum, the Antiquities Department, National Archives, Film Censorship Board, National Sports Council and National Art Council.

He alleges that his antiquities department has been marginalised while under the education ministry, for instance, in the budgets of the ministry from 1993 to 1998, 'no mention has been made of providing the department with workers and facilities.'

'Tourists cannot pay money to go to a place if it has no facilities,' he says, adding, 'There is basically no difference in natural heritage and cultural heritage in their potential for tourism.'

As tourists still stream towards Mount Kilimanjaro and to National Parks in the country, historical sites in Bagamoyo, Kilwa and many other parts in the country are, according to Mr. Kamamba, on the verge of total decline, he says.

Officials from the Tanzania Tourism Board and the Ministry of Tourism and Natural Resources, have since 1997 been visiting various countries, mainly Canada, USA, Japan and Korea, to market the country's tourism products.

In Tanzania, the tourism sector is among the fastest growing and earners of sizable income, but receive less in terms of investment and incentives. (words 557)

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Extract ID: 1475

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 02d


Along the coast, the Bantu people had also established their presence over extensive areas and a distinctive Swahili civilisation developed with the intermingling of Arab and Shirazi immigrants who established maritime posts at Kaole in the 12th century which thrived until the 15th century.

Kilwa, the most famous town in the South founded in the 10th century, was one of the few African states south of the Mediterranean to strike its own coinage during medieval times.

Shirazi dynasties ruled the region during the 12th and 13th centuries and around 1270, King Hassan bin Suleiman III built Husuni Kubwa, the largest stone construction known in those days in sub-Saharan Africa: the remains are still most impressive.

Extract ID: 3991
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