Map and Guide to Tanzania

Map and Guide to Tanzania

1995 Oct

Book ID 274

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 01a

A Short History of Tanzania

So Geographers in Afric' Maps

With savage pictures fill their gaps

And o'er uninhabitable downs

Place elephants for want of towns

J. Swift 1733

These verses were quoted [p56] in an interesting little book An Introduction to the History of East Africa written by Zoe Marsh and G Kingsnorth in 1957. Fortunately, the elephants are still there but enormous gaps in people's knowledge remain concerning Tanzania.

Extract ID: 3957

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 02a


Unknown to non-Africans before the colonial period, the prehistory of the interior of Africa has since been partly pieced together. Discovered by chance in 1910 by a German entomologist who stumbled across some fossils and bones, evidence of human life was found in Tanzania's Olduvai Gorge and the place attracted the attention of Professor Leakey and his wife, whose names are forever linked to the site. Their research started in 1931 but it was not until 1959 that Mary Leakey found fragments of teeth and a skull which were part of a male hominid whom they called Zinjanthropus or Nutcracker Man, because of his huge teeth. The skull was dated to be 1.75 to 2 million years old and was proof that hominids inhabited the area; it shifted the centre of human evolution from Asia to Africa and the discovery 20 years later of footprints at Laetoli south of Olduvai pushed back the presence of hominids to 3.5 to 4 million years.

Extract ID: 3988

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 02b

Rock Paintings

Numerous archaeological finds around Tanzania prove that vast immigration movements occurred around the 1st and 2nd centuries AD with agriculturist tribes from Cameroon and Nigeria emerging into East Africa and Tanzania and absorbing or expelling the local Bushmen and Hottentots into the Kalahari desert.

More than a thousand places with Rock Paintings, especially around Kondoa at Kolo, Cheke and Kisese, testify that there was an intensely active Stone Age civilisation in the area.

The Hadzapi and Sandawe tribes who lived in that region kept their khoisan click language and, numbering only a few thousand, still live in such primitive conditions that they can rightly be considered as today's only survivors, throughout Africa, of the Stone Age civilisation.

Extract ID: 3989

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 02c


In the 2nd/lst centuries BC, Cushites - whose present survivors are the Burungi, Gorowa, Iraqw and Mbugu peoples - moved from southern Ethiopia into the Tanzania Highlands.

Further waves of iron-working Bantu people coming from West Africa left traces of an important settlement at Engaruka, north of Lake Manyara with more than 5000 acres of cultivated and irrigated land and Iron Age hand axes and tools were found at Isimila near Iringa and Katuruka west of Bukoba. Some skeletons were unearthed at Naberera.

Extract ID: 3990

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 02d


Along the coast, the Bantu people had also established their presence over extensive areas and a distinctive Swahili civilisation developed with the intermingling of Arab and Shirazi immigrants who established maritime posts at Kaole in the 12th century which thrived until the 15th century.

Kilwa, the most famous town in the South founded in the 10th century, was one of the few African states south of the Mediterranean to strike its own coinage during medieval times.

Shirazi dynasties ruled the region during the 12th and 13th centuries and around 1270, King Hassan bin Suleiman III built Husuni Kubwa, the largest stone construction known in those days in sub-Saharan Africa: the remains are still most impressive.

Extract ID: 3991

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 02e


With the Portuguese invasion in the 15th century, Kilwa declined and in 1587 the Zimba, a warrior people from the Zambezi Valley, massacred the whole population.

Extract ID: 3992

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03a
Extract Date: 16thC AD


Substantiated by oral tradition, records show that in the 15th century, some tribes started appointing chiefs who established kingships - but these small organised states were not grouped into any unified empires. One known exception is the Karagwe Kingdom in the extreme North-West near Kagera River. Here the Bachwezi and Basita established a dynasty founded by Rubinda, Chief of the Hima. Tradition has it that one King Ndagara was such a gifted ironsmith that he forged a special hammer which he threw across the Kagera Valley, killing his arch-enemy King Gahindiro of Rwanda.

Extract ID: 3993

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03b
Extract Date: 1853 to 1879

King Rumanyika Orugundu

At the death of King Rumanyika Orugundu who reigned from 1853 to 1879, the Pax Germanica brought the five centuries-old Kingdom to an end.

Extract ID: 3994

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03c
Extract Date: 1760

'Kilimia - The Conqueror'

Around 1760, Horombo of the Chagga, known as 'Kilimia - The Conqueror', became their first paramount chief and controlled the entire Kilimanjaro area. He attempted to create a vast state but was killed by the Masai; his unification policy failed.

Extract ID: 3995

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03d
Extract Date: 1790~

Professional bushpig hunter

At the end of the 18th century, Mbega, a professional bushpig hunter coming from the Nguru Mountains, became the first King in Usambara.

Extract ID: 3996

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Extract Author: 1800+
Page Number: 03e

Ghendewa of the Pare

Around Pare and down to Same, Ghendewa of the Pare built a fortified capital, raised a conscript army and introduced a considerable degree of unity with a sophisticated social system. He was killed fighting the Chagga.

Mashombo of Mshewa in Mbaga was another powerful leader in the region, feared for employing a private army of sorcerers and witches (ndewa).

Extract ID: 3997

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03f
Extract Date: 1840s

A durable society

Chief Kisabengo of the Zigua who came from the Uluguru Mountains, developed a durable society in the Morogoro area with sufficient political and military clout to enable him to challenge the authority of the Sultan of Zanzibar.

During the 1840s Chief Munyigumba of the Sangu dominated the plains of the Ruaha, and Merere, another Sangu leader, built a fortified capital near Mbeya.

Extract ID: 3998

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03g
Extract Date: 1840's

Lion King

Around the same period, [1840's] Kimweri of the Kilindi dynasty in Usambara was proclaimed Simba Mwene (Lion King) after his father Kinyashi's death. Having conquered most of the Pare Mountains, he ruled from his capital at Vugha over more than half a million people.

Extract ID: 3999

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03h
Extract Date: 1860-1880

A formidable clan

Between 1860 and 1880 a formidable clan rose to power in the Southern Iringa Mufindi region when the head of the Muyinga family, Munyigumba of the Hehe united more than 100 clans into a single politically centralised society. Defending his territory against constant raids by the Ngoni, whom he virtually annihilated, he was succeeded at his death around 1880 by Paramount Chief Mkwawa who extended his dominion and won more wars against the southern Mshope Ngoni whilst halting the cattle-raiding Masai from the North.

His kingdom covered 14,000 square miles between lfakara and Kilosa in the East to Lake Tanganyika and Nyasa in the West and up to the Ruhinga - Kilombero river. He fortified his capital in Kalenga with an 8-mile long 12-foot high wall, organised armed camps, military service and encouraged agricultural irrigation techniques.

He was to become one of the staunchest opponents of German colonisation and was a courageous ruler much revered by Tanzanians.

Extract ID: 4000

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03i
Extract Date: 1860

Rindi of the Chagga

Rindi of the Chagga was another major chief ruling in the Kilimanjaro region in 1860, making Moshi an important base for ivory and slave trading with Zanzibar. He signed a Treaty with the Germans in 1885 and Moshi became their headquarters and most important economic and political centre.

Extract ID: 4001

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03j
Extract Date: 1870-1891

Permanent competition

In the same area, [Kilimanjaro region] and in permanent competition with Rindi, Sina had by 1870 developed a large army and was active in agriculture and cattle raids. He was still in control of his empire at the arrival of the Germans in 1891.

Coastal Arabs had penetrated deeply into the interior since 1850, establishing trading posts in the Unyanembe region around Tabora under Chiefs Swetu and Fundikira; the Nyamwezi were already known as long-distance ivory traders for the coastal Arabs since the late 18th century.

Extract ID: 4002

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 03k
Extract Date: 1876 - 1881

'ruga-ruga'

Chief Mirambo, a local warlord, turned the supremacy in long-distance trading and porterage into a political, economic and military system by uniting the numerous Nyamwezi clans into a powerful kingdom in 1870 with its capita) in Urambo.

Between 1876 and 1881 he undertook missions to make alliances with neighbouring rulers and led expeditions to Burundi, the Vinza and Tongwe in the West, the Pimbwe and Konongo in the South, the Nyaturu, Iramba and Sukuma in eastern Tanzania, and to Kabaka Mutesa of Uganda.

Using Ngoni mercenaries - the 'ruga-ruga' - his rule extended from the Northwest Buganda border to Lake Tanganyika and covered the area south of Tabora down to Uvinza. To consolidate his power he made an alliance with the sultan of Zanzibar but constant incidents led to the Sultan withdrawing his support, and Mirambo's kingdom disintegrated after his death in 1884.

He is a national hero and a famous war song honours his memory; Iron Breaks the Head.

Stanley called him the 'Napoleon of Central Africa'.

Extract ID: 4003

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04a
Extract Date: 1846

First exploration into Tanganyika

What can be considered as the first exploration into Tanganyika took place in 1846 by German missionaries Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann who, exploring the Pangani Valley for two years, were the first to report sighting Kilimanjaro in 1848. Their report that the mountain was snow-capped met with disbelief from the scientific world.

Extract ID: 4004

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04b
Extract Date: 1856


In 1856 the British Royal Geographical Society commissioned Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning Speke to look for the sources of the Nile; during their expeditions they found Lake Ukerewe in 1858 which was renamed, after the Queen, Victoria Nyanza and continuing westwards via Tabora they reached Ujiji and found Lake Tanganyika.

Extract ID: 4005

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04c
Extract Date: 1859

Albert Roscher

Albert Roscher from Hamburg was the first European to land in Mzizima in 1859 which was to become Dar es Salaam.

Extract ID: 4006

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04d
Extract Date: 1861-1862

von der Decken opens a route

.. .. during his 1861-1862 expedition, von der Decken opened a route to Kilimanjaro from Tanga.

In his memory a bird species was called after his name.

Extract ID: 4007

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04e
Extract Date: 1866-1873

David Livingstone starts from Zanzibar

Starting from Zanzibar in 1866, David Livingstone first explored East Africa to find navigable waterways before setting off on his crusade against slavery. He died on May 1st 1873 in Chitarnbi (Zambia) from where his body was carried by his servants for a 1000-mile journey to Bagamoyo He is buried in Westminster Abbey in London.

Extract ID: 4008

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04f
Extract Date: 1873

Cameron sets off from Bagamoyo

In 1873 Cameron set off from Bagamoyo to Lake Tanganyika and continuing on to Benguela, was the first European to cross Africa from East to West.

Extract ID: 4009

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04g
Extract Date: 1877

Eaton

Eaton, crossing Africa from South to North, passed Lake Nyasa and reached Central Tanganyika where he died in 1877 near the Bahi Swamps, west of Dodoma.

Extract ID: 4010

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04h
Extract Date: 1878

2 suits of armour, a portable organ and 24 umbrellas

The most eccentric was probably French clergyman Alexandre Debaize who in 1878 reached Ujii with 2 suits of armour, a portable organ and 24 umbrellas.

With his death in 1879, France abandoned its views on colonies in this part of Africa.

Extract ID: 4011

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04i
Extract Date: 1871-1889

The most prolific explorer

Henry Morton Stanley, certainly the most prolific explorer, led his expeditions for overt colonisation purposes. He journeyed for extensive periods between 1871 and 1889, at various time for King Leopold II of Belgium.

Extract ID: 4012

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04j
Extract Date: 1880-1884

In the south

The Scot Joseph Thomson ventured into the Ruvuma area in 1880, the French Giraud went South to Zambia via Tukuyu, and Smith entered Mozambique in 1884 via Kilwa.

Extract ID: 4013

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04k
Extract Date: 1887

Emin Pasha

1887 saw the explorations of Emin Pasha, who in spite of his exotic name was a German citizen called Eduard Schnitzer.

Extract ID: 4014

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04l
Extract Date: 1890-1892

Colonial geography

Oscar Baumann, the Austrian geographer, found Lakes Eyasi and Manyara during his 1890-1892 expedition and Hans Meyer from Leipzig, professor in what was by then called colonial geography reached the top of Kilimanjaro (Kibo) with his colleague Purtscheller in 1889.

Extract ID: 4015

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04m
Extract Date: 1890

Travell to the North

Count Adolf von Gotzen travelled to the North in 1890

Extract ID: 4016

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 04n
Extract Date: 1899~

At the close of the century

.. .. and at the close of the century, Stuhlmann undertook the last German expedition before beginning the development of modern Dar es Salaam.

Extract ID: 4017

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 05a
Extract Date: 1884

Orderly appropriation of Africa

In 1884 Bismarck, Prussia's Chancellor, called the Berlin Conference for the orderly appropriation of Africa. To give it some moral grounds, an article was included in the resulting treaty, stating that Slavery should be abolished over all the territories; it would take 35 more years before this solemn pledge came true.

Extract ID: 4018

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 05b
Extract Date: 1886

Anglo-German Partition Agreement

In 1886 colonial rivalry between Britain and Germany flared up again and a fresh Anglo-German Partition Agreement clearly defined German and British spheres of influence. A straight line traced between Kenya and Tanganyika along the actual boundaries divided the territories. North of the line, Kenya and Uganda went to England. The Southern part together with Ruanda-Urundi to the west went to Germany: this gave birth to German East Africa. Germany seized the occasion to reduce the mainland possessions of Sultan Barghash of Zanzibar to a 16 km wide coastal strip, keeping free access to all ports.

Extract ID: 4019

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 05c
Extract Date: 1890

'Heligoland Treaty',

Another meeting leading to the 'Heligoland Treaty', was held in 1890 to ensure Africa 'The benefits of peace and civilisation' and settled the last disputes which still existed between Britain and Germany who abandoned some places in Kenya, receiving in compensation the Island of Heligoland in the North Sea.

A lingering controversy plagued the discussions concerning the area around Taveta claimed by rival German and British explorers and with Germany giving in, this is why it is the only stretch of this border which does not run in a perfectly straight line.

There is no historical evidence to support the story that the dividing line went on purpose around Mount Kilimanjaro and that Queen Victoria gave it as a present for the Kaiser's birthday as she already possessed Mount Kenya.

An Anglo-German Treaty divided Lake Victoria across the middle and continued the frontier to the eastern border of the Belgian Congo Free State. A last Belgian-German Agreement to share Lake Tanganyika along a North-South line ended the 'orderly' partition.

Extract ID: 4020

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 05d
Extract Date: 1884-1897

'the Man with Blood on his Hands'

In the following decades no colonising power showed much concern with peace and civilisation in exploiting its colonies but Tanganyika was to suffer the most under the cruel methods of Karl Peters, otherwise known as Mikono wa Damu, 'the Man with Blood on his Hands', who left a trail of bloodshed and desolation.

Peters made his first intrusion in Tanganyika in 1875 but it was in 1884 with the scramble for African colonies that he created the Society for German Colonisation, later the German Colonisation Company. A ruthless and opportunistic adventurer, he hastily journeyed up the Wami river on the mainland: within less than six weeks he signed an impressive number of agreements with local sultans (Arab or Swahili chiefs) who, not understanding the contents of the treaties and surrounded by armed soldiers while interpreters gave a totally fake version of what was being said, unwittingly gave up their territories to the German Company.

The terms of these treaties are well known, such as the one signed by Sultan Mangungu of Msovero in Usagara: 'Treaty of Eternal Friendship - Sultan Mangungu offers his territory with all its civil and public appartenances to Dr Karl Peters, Representative of the Society for German Colonisation for exclusive and universal utilization for German colonisation', ending with 1, Dr Karl Peters, in the name of the Society declare my willingness to take over the territory', and it concluded: This contract has been executed legally and is valid for all time'.

With his valueless treaties he acquired immense territories and Bismarck, who had professed not to be interested in colonies, declared the lands to be German Protectorate by an Imperial Bill signed in March 1885.

This is how most of Tanganyika was brought under German rule, and Peters was enraged when he learnt that the rights he claimed 'illegally' over some areas in Uganda - in spite of existing Agreements - were relinquished by Germany to the benefit of England. They were exchanged for the Island of Heligoland which he called 'A bathtub in the North Sea'.

Although he was known for his ill-treatment of indigenous populations he was named Imperial High Commissioner for the Kilimanjaro District, but was finally dismissed from colonial service in 1897 after having been condemned for cruelty by a German judge. Hitler spoke of him as 'A model colonial administrator'.

Extract ID: 4021

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 05e
Extract Date: 1888+

Administration

The country was administered by a Bezirksarntmann (District Commissioner) with groups of villages headed by an akida and each village by a Jumbe, all detested by the population. German settlers lived in constant fear of attacks, protecting themselves in forts armed with machine-guns.

Exactions by the Akidas, incessant taxation, disruption of social and economic patterns, contempt for traditional life and constant demands by the German Administration for forced labour, exacerbated the frustration of the indigenous population; discontent increased with the setting-up of the German Land Kommission allocating the best lands to German settlers and confining populous tribes in Moshi, Arusha, Tanga, Meru, Kilimanjaro regions into congested areas.

The stage was set for fierce and long rebellion, and repression.

Extract ID: 4022

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 06a
Extract Date: 1890

Armed opposition

Before the ink of the last agreement had dried, armed opposition in the German sphere was instant and relentless; it went on for nearly 20 uninterrupted years.

In 1888 at the coast, Bushiri bin Salim who had fought for years against the Zanzibar sultans, rose against the Germans and drove them out of all major coastal towns. Imperial Commissioner Captain von Wissmann stormed Bagamoyo in 1889 and captured Bushiri who was hanged in December.

Bwana Heri and his Zigua tribe continued resistance but, unable to withstand the German assaults, surrendered in April 1890. Unrest spread South and in 1890 Kilwa put up strong resistance under Hassan bin Omari Makunganya who was captured in May and hung from a mango tree in Kilwa Kivinje. Chief Machemba of the Yao defied the Germans also in 1890 and it took 9 years to force him to negotiate peace.

In 1891 resistance along the coast ended and in the wake of their reconquest, the Germans forced the Sultan of Zanzibar to sell his coastal strip for 200,000.

Extract ID: 4023

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 06b
Extract Date: 1891

More revolt

They were however about to face more revolts in the interior.

Starting in 1891, Nyamwezi Chief Isike fought the Germans in Tabora region in the Western part of Tanganyika. Defeated in 1892, rather than surrendering, he blew himself up in the armoury of his fort in January 1893.

Trouble flared up north with the Chagga and in central Tanganyika with the Gogo, but two major prolonged wars challenged German rule for years: Mkwawa in southern Hehe land and the famous Maji Maji rebellion which inflamed a quarter of the country for more than a year.

The Germans had occupied Hehe country and following the massacre of a delegation sent by Mkwawa, he retaliated in 1891 by ambushing in Lugalo an armed column headed by Lieutenant von Zeiewski. He seized enough weapons and ammunition to keep up resistance for nearly 3 years during which the Germans prepared their assault: in October 1894 a well-organised expeditionary force under the command of Tom Prince, an English-born German officer, stormed Kalenga, the court town of the Hehe, defeated them and captured the town. Mkwawa escaped and in spite of an enormous reward of 5,000 rupees, he was not betrayed and continued harassing German troops with guerilla actions for 4 years until 1898. Trapped, he shot himself.

The Germans' exultation at this hard-won victory ran so high that they cut off Mkwawa's head which was sent for display to the Bremen Anthropological Museum in Germany, his body being returned to his people for ritual burial. In June 1954 his head was returned and handed over to Mkwawa's grandson. Chief Adam Sapi, who was to become the First Speaker of the independent Tanzania Parliament.

Extract ID: 4024

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 06c
Extract Date: 1887-1914

Tom von Prince

Tom von Prince (awarded the title 'von' in recognition of his many acts of bravery), had spent his military life fighting all over Tanganyika; against Isike in 1887, Machemba of the Yao in 1890, Sina of Kibosho in 1891, and he waged a gallant war against the Hehe, who, in spite of having nick- named him 'Bwana Sakarani' - the Wild Man - on account of his fierce temper - held him in such esteem that the German Colonial Office exiled him to the Usambaras.

Enrolled in General Lettow von Vorbeck's Army during World War I, he was killed in action in November 1914, leading an assault against British troops in Tanga where he lies buried.

Extract ID: 4025

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 06d
Extract Date: 1905

the Maji Maji war

All resistance to the Germans in the interior ceased and they could now set out to organize Deutsch Ost Afrika.

They continued exercising their authority with such disregard and contempt for existing local structures and traditions and with such brutality that discontent was brewing anew and in 1902 a movement against forced labour for a cotton scheme rejected by the local population started along the Rufiji.

It reached a breaking point in July 1905 when the Matumbi of Nandete chased their akida and suddenly the revolt grew wider from Dar es Salaam to the Uluguru Mountains, the Kilornbero Valley, the Mahenge and Makonde Plateaux, the Ruvuma in the southernmost part and Kilwa, Songea, Masasi, and from Kilosa to Iringa down to the eastern shores of Lake Nyasa.

Known as the Maji Maji war with the main brunt borne by the Ngonis, this was a merciless rebellion and by far the bloodiest in Tanganyika.

Germans had occupied the area since 1897 and totally altered many aspects of everyday life. They were actively supported by the missionaries who destroyed all signs of indigenous beliefs, notably by razing the 'mahoka' huts where the local population worshipped their ancestors' spirits and by ridiculing their rites, dances and other ceremonies. This would not be forgotten or forgiven; the first battle which broke out at Uwereka in September 1905 under the Governorship of Count von Gotzen turned instantly into an all-out war with indiscriminate murders and massacres perpetrated by all sides against farmers, settlers, missionaries, planters, villages, indigenous people and peasants.

Extract ID: 4026

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 06e
Extract Date: 1905

the Maji Maji Rebellion

Convinced by powerful witch-doctors (waganga), the people believed that special water from the Uluguru Mountains protected men with magic by turning bullets into water (maji in Kiswahili, hence the Maji Maji Rebellion). The best known mganga was Kinjikitile of Ngarambe and 'drinking stations' were installed all over to allow local populations to benefit from this magic medicine, which was in fact not so much drunk as sprinkled all over the body.

After the first assault, the Ngoni overran the Perarniho German Mission and burned down all the buildings, avenging the destruction of their huts. Sustained battles lasting three to four weeks went on all over but the Maji Maji leaders were repeatedly defeated since the Germans had no scruples in using machine guns against the fighters, who like the Pogoro and Mbunga tribesmen convinced that the Maji Maji was giving them immunity against bullets - massively attacked Mahenge in great strength, but were relentlessly mown down in dreadful numbers.

The biggest united fight against the Germans took place under command of Chief Chabruma of the Ngoni at Lumecha, ten miles east of the fortified German Boma (Administrative Headquarters) but he was routed. He started a protracted guerilla warfare but pursued by German officers and engaging in a last desperate fight in June 1906 he was badly wounded and crossed the Ruvuma into Portuguese territory to take refuge at the court of Chief Mataka of the Yao. Recovering from his wounds and planning yet one more attack he was assassinated by a pretender to his succession. Some actions lasted until 1907 around Songea but Chabruma's assassination marked the end of the incredibly violent rebellion which left between 120,000 and 135,000 dead.

The entire south German East Africa was completely devastated and the political power and economic structure of the Ngoni totally destroyed. District Commissioner Captain Richter applied a scorched earth policy and by confiscating food, provoked a two year-long famine and massive depopulation and emigration. His extreme policy came under severe criticism from those same missionaries who ten years earlier had been one of the main causes of the uprising and they now succeeded in having him relieved from his post.

Meanwhile and between March and September 1906, all the leaders of the Maji Maji Rebellion were hanged. Chief Songea, who gave his name to the town, was offered a reprieve from the death sentence because he had surrendered: he demanded to be and was hanged, fearing that his survival would be considered a treacherous act.

The Maji Maji War in Ungoni by 0.B Mapunda and G.P Mpagnala, published in 1968, documents this period with a wealth of detail and anecdotes.

Extract ID: 4027

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 06f

the country's infrastructure

Under the first appointed Governor General, von Liebert, the country's infrastructure was organised with administrative centres, schools, hospitals and other social facilities and roads, ports and Railways.

The l,250km long Central Line (Mittelland Bahn) between Dar es Salaam and Lake Tanganyika surveyed in 1894 was started in 1906, reached Tabora in 1912 and Kigorna in February 1914. The Usambara railway linking Tanga to Moshi (Nord Bahn) was built to develop trade with the northern plantations and was completed in 1911.

After that and until the outbreak of World War I, attention turned towards agriculture with the development of cotton, coffee, sisal and rubber plantations.

With the introduction of the railway network the Asian merchants consolidated their trade by installing themselves all over the interior of the country.

Extract ID: 4028

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 07a
Extract Date: 1914

World War I

At the outbreak of World War I, the German troops were outnumbered by the British but it took the whole war period to defeat the valiant German Commander Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck - creator of the famed askari battalions - who started the hostilities by attacking Taveta in August 1914. German troops kept the initiative for a long time but they were unable to resist the constantly improving fighting ability of the Allied Forces.

In 1916 General Smuts with British, Indian and South African forces occupied the northern border, Belgian troops commanded by Colonel Tombeur reached Tabora from the west, and with a force crossing the Kagera from Uganda, the Allied troops prepared for the final assault; in November 1917 German troops were thrown behind the Ruvuma and found themselves totally defeated in November 1918. Lettow-Vorbeck had outwitted the Allied troops for 4 years with such brilliant tactics that, together with his officers, he was allowed to surrender in honourable conditions.

Tanganyika had again had to suffer the consequences of the war. Vast areas were turned into wasteland and economic life broke down once again with thousands of African troops having succumbed to famine, malaria and other diseases.

Extract ID: 4029

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 07b
Extract Date: 1919

British Mandate

The Treaty of Versailles in June 1919 gave Britain a mandate to administer all of former German East Africa under the supervision of the League of Nations, with the exception of Ruanda and Urundi, which were placed under Belgian administration. The country was renamed Tanganyika Territory, and was governed by the Colonial Office with General Sir H.A Byatt as first Administrator General.

In 1922 Slavery was finally abolished.

Extract ID: 4030

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 08a
Extract Date: 1922-1945

Administration

The British Administration took rneasures to revive African institutions by encouraging limited local rule and authorized the formation in 1922 of political clubs such as the Tanganyika Territory African Civil Service Association. In 1926 some African members were unofficially admitted into the Legislative Council and in 1929 the Association became the Tanganyika African Association which would constitute the core of the nascent nationalist movement. In 1945 the first Africans were effectively appointed to the Governor's Legislative Council.

Extract ID: 4031

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 08b
Extract Date: 1945-1960

After World War II

After World War II, Tanganyika became a Trust Territory under the United Nations with Britain expected to conduct the country towards independence.

Self-government was now the major aim and in 1953, Julius 'Mwalimu' (The Teacher) Nyerere was elected President of the Tanganyika African Association which in 1954 was renamed the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) with its rallying motto 'Uhuru na Umoja' (Freedom and Unity).

In 1958 TANU largely won the Legislative Council elections and Richard Turnbull, the last Governor, integrated the Party into the mainstream of political life. In 1960 TANU formed the first local Government and Nyerere was appointed as Tanganyika's first Prime Minister.

Extract ID: 4032

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 08c
Extract Date: 9 December 1961

Independence

Independence from Britain was obtained without any civil disturbance on 9th December 1961, the country remaining a member of the Commonwealth.

Extract ID: 4033

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 08d
Extract Date: 1970's

Ujamaa Villages

To reconstruct Tanganyika's economy (the country had been a low priority' under British rule) was not easy. Nyerere, who was elected President declared a one-party State in 1965 and embarked on a policy of African Socialism which culminated in the 1967 Arusha Declaration which set the principles of Ujamaa: collective production, equal opportunity and, above all, self-reliance.

This original form of development was to be carried out in Ujamaa Villages which regrouped farmers in specific areas for specified types of production. The policy was successful with more than 8000 villages created by the mid-1970s, but traditional resistance and a difficult economic environment led to the breakdown of this idealistic social programme.

Extract ID: 4034

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 08e
Extract Date: 29 Oct 1964

Zanzibar

Zanzibar continued as a British Protectorate until December 1963 when it became independent. After the Revolution of January 1964, Articles of Union with Tanganyika were signed in April 1964 and the United Republic of Tanzania was proclaimed on 29 October 1964.

Extract ID: 4035

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 08f
Extract Date: 1977

East African Community

Meanwhile, the East African Community disintegrated as Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania opted for different social systems, leading to the closure of the Tanzania - Kenya border in 1977.

Extract ID: 4036

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 08g
Extract Date: 1977

Chama cha Mapinduzi

A fierce defender of African liberation movements, Tanzania was involved in a brief war against Idi Amin's brutal regime who claimed part of the north-western district near Bukoba for Uganda. Tanzania was victorious.

In 1977 the Chama cha Mapinduzi (The Revolutionary Party) replaced TANU, which had conducted the nation's policies for 23 years.

Extract ID: 4037

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 08h
Extract Date: 1983

Border between Tanzania and Kenya reopened

In November 1983 the border between Tanzania and Kenya reopened. Having been elected five times as President, the popular and widely respected Nyerere stepped down in 1985. The present President Ali Hassan Mwinyi was elected in his place.

Extract ID: 4038

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 09a

120 tribes coexist peacefully

More than 120 tribes coexist peacefully in Tanzania with their traditions, culture, language and social systems regulating each important event.

Some are organised along simple principles, others follow intricate rules which must be strictly obeyed: scarifications, mysterious beliefs, animism, respect for the elders, special dances and celebrations, all mark in their way their particular identity: leadership can be exercised by the head- man or by inheritance or paramount chiefs rule over multiple tribes living within the same environment sharing common structures; some tribes practice bride-price, paying for their brides with cattle, money or crops, others practice bride-service with labor due to the wife's parents; succession is patri- or matrilineal, with very well-defined and complex priorities. A unique social structure is the age-grade system where groups of the same age occupy precise grades at precise times of their lives and with specific activities attached to each age group. Members surviving after the last grade are no longer included in the social hierarchy of the group.

Extract ID: 4039

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 09b

Sources

"Africa, its Peoples and their Culture History" written by Murdock in 1959 offers many details concerning African tribes.

The remarkable "Atlas of the Tanganyika Territory" printed in 1942 by the Department of Lands and Mines - Dar es Salaam is, in spite of its age, still the best reference available.

Extract ID: 4040

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 09c

Names

Tribal names can be altered by pronunciations or written mistakes (Rangi or Langi, Longo or Kongo) and the proper grammatical use of the language, to non-Swahili speakers, can cause confusion:

the Ha tribe in one instance appears as Muha and several times as Baha,

and the Hehe tribe appears as Wabehe.

Some are an improbable mixture of mistakes such as the Yao tribe, which is also known as Achawa, Adjao, Adsawa, Adsoa, A)awa, Ayo, Hiao, Mudao, Mujano, Mujoa, Myao, Veiao, Wahaiao, Wiayau or Wayao etc.

Others bear various names totally unrelated to phonetic interpretation: Iraqw or Mbulu, Hadzapi or Tindega or Kangeju.

Extract ID: 4041

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 09d

The Chagga

No tribe claims any predominant role - population varies from a million Sukurna to a few hundred Sandawe or Hadzapis - but obviously some have better documented records:

The Chagga: with more than 400 clans, they are an extremely industrious Bantu people. Living on the fertile slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro, they have developed remarkable irrigation systems, advanced cultivation methods on terraced fields and turned coffee plantations into profitable cash crops. They have a reputation of being modern businessmen but it is interesting to note that cultivation remains clearly divided into three categories: beans, sweet potatoes and yams are grown by women with many rituals but only men cultivate bananas and eleusine, a small seed utilized in food; maize can be grown by both sexes. One of the best known historical leaders is Paramount Chief Marealle.

Extract ID: 4042

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 09e

The Masai

The Masai: with their bodies painted in ochre and their blue or red clothing, these Nilotic fully nomadic Pastoralists originated from the southern part of Sudan, descending towards Tanzania during the 17th century. Their life style is well publicized but it is maybe lesser known that they obey strict dietary habits forbidding them for instance to consume milk and meat within the same day and that they observe the cushitic taboo against eating fish.

Extract ID: 4043

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 09f

The Ngoni

The Ngoni (Angoni, Wangoni): caught up in battles with King Shaka's Zulu warriors (South Africa), some chiefs were forced to look for new territories to assert their lost power. In 1820 Zwangendaba, one of Shaka's commanders in Natal was chased and, crossing the Zambezi, established a kingdom between western Lake Nyasa and eastern Lake Tanganyika, reaching the Fipa Plateau around 1840 after a 2,000 mile exodus.

Break-away Ngoni bands dispersed after Zwangendaba's death in 1845 and went as far north as Lake Victoria. The Tuta settled around Kahama and became professional mercenaries known as 'ruga-ruga'.

A group of Gwangwara Ngoni under ZuluGama moved to Songea defeating the Maseko Ngoni who had defeated the local Ndendeule who moved north to the Kilombero Valley where they established the Mbunga Kingdom in the 1860s. Other splinter groups formed the Mshope Kingdom north of Songea.

The Ngoni were feared all over the country and they exercised power from Lake Nyasa to the Indian Ocean and from the North of Hehe country to the Southern Yao. German colonisation brought them under control by 1910 but not without very bloody and violent resistance.

Extract ID: 4044

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 09g

The Nyakyusa

The Nyakyusa: found in Mbeya district, they are organised in a society where men and women share work alike. They had a now extinct unique tradition of age-villages: from the age of 13, groups of boys formed new villages which would die at the death of the last survivor of the group. Largely self-sufficient with land rotation agriculture, stock breeding is one of their important activities and they practice an egalitarian form of society to such an extent that wealthy cattle owners must redistribute some of their cattle for fear of being 'officially' subjected to witchcraft. - the Nyamwezi: the 'People of the Moon' number over 400,000.

They were great traders and the most powerful tribe in the interior, successfully challenging the Arabs' commercial power in the 19th century. Trading mostly in ivory, iron goods, salt and slaves, they were also famous throughout East Africa lor long-distance porterage. With an aristocracy and a considerable slave population, their lives were regulated by secret societies with intricate initiation rites and gods and spirits who were worshipped, the mfumi diviner wielding considerable power. They united in a vast empire and various chiefs contributed to the constitution of an extensive commercial territory.

Extract ID: 4045

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 09h

Three tribes

Three tribes have a particularly ancient history:

- the Iraqw in the Mbulu region with their distinctive physical features are the only tribe of Cushitic origin in the region as they grew totally isolated from their original Cushitic cluster. They inhabited the Engaruka fields and traces of occupation around Lake Natron, Manyara and Eyasi) go back to the Upper Paleolithic Period.

- the Sandawe and the Hadzapi or Tindiga: the first group lives in central Tanzania and stems from the ancient tribes who occupied the area with the Bushmen with whom they shared the Khoisan click language; nowadays they are fairly assimilated. The second group however is still organised in the simplest form of society based on hunting and subsisting mainly on roots and fruits and animal hunting with bows and arrows during the dry season. They are thought to be the only remnants in the whole of Africa of the ancient Paleolithic Times.

Grouped in clusters or divided into clans, tribes are not always easy to identify or to locate with definite accuracy and to those who search in vain for their presence on the map, I request their indulgence.

Extract ID: 4046

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 10

Language

Tanzania has a linguistic diversity unique in Africa with, for example, the rare Khoisan click Language characterized by implosing consonants (spoken only by the Sandawe and Hadza and common among South Africa's Bushmen and Hottentots) and Cushitic and Nilotic languages in the North of the country. But the lingua franca is a major Bantu Language with more than 100 dialects, Swahili, the name of which derives from the Arabic 'sahit' or 'the coast'. It is the only Bantu Language with written literature in Arabic script - the first manuscript dates back to the 17th Century, with the longest versified poetry epic in any African Language on the life of Muhammad.

In 1925 Swahili became the first instruction Language at Primary level and was declared Tanzania's official Language in 1963. Standard Swahili is Kiunguja spoken on Zanzibar and on the Mainland.

Extract ID: 192

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 11

Dar es Salaam

Founded in 1862 by Sultan Seyyid Majid of Zanzibar who wanted to move his capital to the small port of Mzizima, his successor Barghash lost interest and interrupted the building of the town. With the arrival of the German East Africa Company, work was resumed in 1891 and the Imperial German Commissioner transferred the capital from Bagamayo to Dar es Salaam. Dodoma is now the official capital, Dar es Salaam being the business centre.

Extract ID: 214

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 12

Slavery

Slavery always existed in Africa as part of a social system but trade started with Arab raiders arriving around the 9th century to take Africans to markets in Mesopotamia, India, Persia and Arabia. In the 19th century slave trading was a flourishing commercial practice with regular and massive deportations organised by Arab slavers helped by local tribes such as the Nyamwezi who became their redoubtable partners. The most renowned Arab trader was Tippu Tip (Hemedi bin Muhammad el Marjebi), born in Zanzibar, who at 18 began slave and ivory trading between the interior and coastal towns, and by 1880 he had built a large commercial empire between the Upper Congo, Lake Tanganyika and Bagamoyo on the coast, where the slaves were shipped-off to Zanzibar for sale to foreign merchants. In East Africa all the main routes, such as the above, lay in Tanganyika: a route in the North passed through Karagwe and North of Lake Victoria and divided to head north to Bunyoro and north-east towards Buganda. A less frequented route in the south exploited by the Yao, led from Lake Nyasa to Kilwa.

The movement to abolish the slave trade started in England after publication of John Wesley's Thought upon Slavery in 1774 followed by Scottish economist Adam Smith's work The Wealth of Nations published in 1776. The latter laid to rest once and for all the 200 year-old economic belief that slave labour was cheaper than free men's work.

It still took more than a century for Slavery to be totally abolished. The Moresby Treaty in 1822, the Hamerton Treaty in 1845 and finally on 5th June 1873 the treaty signed between the British Consul in Zanzibar, Sir John Kirk, and Sultan Barghash made slave trading illegal. By 1889 all former slaves were declared free men and the status of slave was abolished in 1907 in British East Africa. Compensation claims, the last step to offset the intricate human-economic impact brought about by the abolition, were not considered after 31 December 1911.

In Tanganyika the status lasted another 15 years until the end of German rule when the country became a British Protectorate in 1922.

Extract ID: 216

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 13a

Tanzania

Four times the size of Great Britain, Tanzania, with a coastline of 5OOkms, covers 938,000 sq kms. and contains part of the Great Rift Valley which extends over 6000kms from Syria, the Jordan Valley, the Dead Sea and all the way down to Mozambique via Kenya.

Three great rivers, the Nile, the Zambezi and the Congo are fed by the Tanzania watershed and the country has more inland waters than any other African country.

Extract ID: 4047

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 13b

Rains

Situated just south of the Equator, temperatures average between 25 and 30 C.

Long 'masika' rains last from March to May, short 'mvuli' rains from October to December with some heavy showers in the South from December to April.

The best period to visit the country is from May to October.

Extract ID: 4048

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 13c

Trade

For many years Tanzania was the world's leading producer of Sisal but the introduction of synthetic fibres depleted the market. Cashew nut and cotton, Pyrethrum and tobacco are grown as well as Arabica coffee in Arusha district and Robusta coffee in the Bukoba area. Tea is grown in the Usambara and Tukuyu regions. Main timber products are camphorwood, mahogany (mkangazi), mangrove, mninga, ebony (mpingo) and teak (mvule).

Diamonds, alluvial and ore gold are found near Shinyanga and the German 'Tabora Sovereign' was minted from Sekenke gold. The famous Tanzanite gemstone is known all over the world.

In British East Africa, the Indian Rupee replaced the Cowrie Shell in 1896 (I Rupee = 200 cowries). The Rupee was replaced by the Florin which was itself replaced in 1922 by the current official tender, the Shilling with 100 cents per unit.

Population by 1990 was approximately 26 million with an average density of 25 inhabitants per sq. km.

Extract ID: 4049

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania, 1995 Oct
Page Number: 13d

Tanzania's national anthem

Tanzania's national anthem was inspired by the lyrics of a 19th century ruga-ruga war song.

Extract ID: 4050
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