Name ID 314
Africa Travel Resource Kilimanjaro
Page Number: 04
In 1844, at the instigation of the London based Church Missionary Society, Johann Ludwig Krapf, a Doctor of Divinity and his wife Rosine arrived in Zanzibar. Krapf had a dream to link the West and East coasts of Africa with a chain of Christian missionaries, but it wasn't long before he discovered his high ambitions conceived in the parlours of Europe were not going to be so easy to realize in the field. In March of that year they moved to Mombasa, where Krapf was to suffer a major test of his faith when his wife died of malaria within days of giving birth. The child died also. Krapf was plunged into depression and suffered alone for two years until the arrival of Swiss missionary, Johann Rebmann, whose fresh enthusiasm was finally able to re-kindled Krapf's ambition desire to link the two coasts.
editors East Africa
Extract Date: 1846
German missionaries Johann [sic] Rebmann and Johann [sic] Krapf become the first Europeans to set eyes on Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya respectively
The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro the legendary burial place of King Solomon, were two German missionaries, Johannes Rebmann and Ludwig Krapf, in 1848. Their tales of a snow-covered peak near the equator, however, were not initially believed.
Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 04a
Extract Date: 1846
What can be considered as the first exploration into Tanganyika took place in 1846 by German missionaries Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann who, exploring the Pangani Valley for two years, were the first to report sighting Kilimanjaro in 1848. Their report that the mountain was snow-capped met with disbelief from the scientific world.
The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro, the legendary burial place of King Solomon, were two German missionaries, Johannes Rebmann and Ludwig Krapf, in 1848. Their tales of a snow-covered peak near the equator, however, were not initially believed. Later two other Germans were the first to reach (1889) the Kibo summit.
Fosbrooke, H.A. The Early Exploration of Kilimanjaro: A Bibliographical Note
Page Number: 06
Extract Date: 1848
The news of the sighting of snow capped mountains near the equator burst on the Western world when Rebmann published an account of his first journey to Chaggaland in 1848 in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, Vol. I, No. I, May 1849. This stirred up a heated argument in which numerous learned gentlemen argued that it was impossible for snow clad mountains to exist in the tropics.
For examples of the arguments and counter-arguments used see a letter in the Athenaeum dated 19th May 1849 and many further letters and articles in that Journal and the The Church Missionary Intelligencer. One of the most ardent opponents of Rebmann was one Cooley who in 1852 published his book Inner Africa laid Open. For a summary of the arguments and also somewhat abreviated accounts of Rebmann's three journeys to Chaggaland see Dr. Krapf's Travels, Researches and Missionary Labours (1860).
Gordon-Brown, A (Editor) The Year Book and Guide to East Africa (1953)
Page Number: 340 footnote
Extract Date: 1854
Dr. Ludwig Krapf a German by birth, was a British Missionary. In 1854, he challenged the Church Misisonary Society to make the grave of his wife and child, near Mombasa, the starting point for the conversion of E. Africa, a challenge which the Society at once accepted.
Fosbrooke, Henry Arusha Integrated Regional Development Plan
Page Number: 117
Extract Date: 1856
Paper IX: Early Maps of East Africa
This is a comprehensive endeavour by the missionaries Krapf and Erhardt to depict large areas of East and Central Africa including the Great Lakes. From the information at their disposal it appeared that one huge lake lay at the centre of the area. Their representation of this lake, depicted in Map 2A, suggested a slug, hence the popular name of the map.
The map itself has never been published but is in the possession of the Royal Geographical Society, London. The Map Curator of the R.G.S. has kindly provided a photo copy of the relevant portion of the map, exhibited as map 2B, stating that this is the best that can be made.
To bring out the salient points, the Survey and Mapping Division of the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development undertook an enlargement (times 2) which accurately reproduces the features which are of particular concern to this story, but omits many others.
Ngorongoro and the Serengeti do not yet appear, but the whole of the country from north of Lake Natron to south of the Pare Mountains is assigned to ILMASAI.
Oldonyo Lengai is shown as "Snow Mt. (rain Mt.) Gods Mt.". "Kignea" and "Kilimanjaro" are also shown as snow mountains. The reason for including Lengai in this category is because mineral deposits which appear on the upper slopes of the volcano show upwith such brilliant whiteness as to give to the early observers the impression of snow.
It is of interest to note that the trade in soda from Lake Natron (though not named as such) was in existance at the time: "From where the Magad [soda] is bought."
Another point of interest depicted in the extreme north east corner of the map is a reference to a stream flowing into "the Ukerewa" I.e. Lake Victoria. It is noted that "This water tho' sweet is said to turn peoples teeth yellow". This is probably the first recorded reference to the fact, particularly noticeable around Mount Meru, that a high flourine [sic] content in the drinking water, does cause a brown stain to the teeth which cannot be removed.
The Map was presented to the Royal Geographical Society on 10th November 1855 by the missionary Erhardt. Its official title is as follows:
"Sketch of a Map from 1 & deg;N. to 15 & deg;S. Latitude and from 23 & deg; to 43 & deg;E. Longitude delineating the probably position and extent of the Sea of Uniamesi as being the continuation of the Lake Niasa and exhibiting the numerous heathen-tribes situated to the East and West of that great Inland-sea together with the Caravan routes leading to it and into the interior in general. In true accordance with the information received from natives - Representatives of various inland tribes - and Mahomidan inland traders. By the Revd. Messrs. Erhardt and F. Rebmann Missionaries of the Church Miss. Society in East Africa Kisaludini March 14 1855."
A paper published in German - J. Erhardt's Memoire Zur Erlauterung Der Von Ihm Und J. Rebmann, Zusammengestellten Karte Von Ost- Und Central-Afrika , (S.Tafel 1.) - gives further details of the country concerned. It is the first attempt at assessing the geographic position of the main geographic features of eastern Africa - Kilimanjaro, Lengai, Lake Victoria etc. by the length and direction of each days march undertaken by the trading caravans.
1860 Publishes: Krapf, Rev. J L Travel and Missionary Labors in Africa
J.L.Krapf, author of Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours. London, Trubner
[assume J.L Krapf is the same as Ludwig Krapf and Johann Krapf]
'They (the Masai) are dreaded as warriors, laying all to waste with fire and sword, so that the weaker tribes do not venture to resist them in the open field, but leave them in possession of their herds, and seek only to save themselves by the quickest possible flight.'