Johannes Rebmann

Name ID 518

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 04a
Extract Date: 1846

First exploration into Tanganyika

What can be considered as the first exploration into Tanganyika took place in 1846 by German missionaries Ludwig Krapf and Johannes Rebmann who, exploring the Pangani Valley for two years, were the first to report sighting Kilimanjaro in 1848. Their report that the mountain was snow-capped met with disbelief from the scientific world.

Extract ID: 4004

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editors East Africa
Extract Date: 1846

first Europeans to set eyes on Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya

German missionaries Johann [sic] Rebmann and Johann [sic] Krapf become the first Europeans to set eyes on Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya respectively

Extract ID: 858

See also

Africa Travel Resource Kilimanjaro
Page Number: 04a

Rebmann

On 16th October 1847, Rebmann, with the help of eight tribesmen and Bwana Kheri, a caravan leader, set off for the mountain of Kasigau, where they hoped to establish the first of mission posts. The journey went well and they returned to Mombasa on the 27th of the same month. Along the way they had heard the stories of the great mountain "Kilimansharo", whose head was above the clouds and "topped with silver", around whose feet lived the mountain's people, the fearsome Jagga (now Chagga). Krapf immediately sought permission from the governor of Mombasa for an expedition to Jagga. His official reason was to find areas suitable for mission stations, but the legendary mountain was becoming of increasing interest to the two missionaries. Disregarding warnings about the 'spirits of the mountain', on the 27th April 1848, Rebmann and Bwana Kheri set off for Jagga and within just two weeks was standing on the great steppe of East Africa within sight of Kilimanjaro ... the first European to set eyes on the mountain. In his log he refers to "a remarkable white on the mountains of Jagga", which he could just make out through the haze. He asked his guide to explain what it was he was looking at and "he did not know but supposed it to be coldness". At that moment Rebmann realised that the legend really was true. There really were snowfields on the African equator. In April 1849, Rebmann's observations were published in the Church Missionary Intelligencier and although not properly substantiated until twelve years later, it remains the first confirmed report of Mount Kilimanjaro.

Extract ID: 4813

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Source Unknown

The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro

The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro the legendary burial place of King Solomon, were two German missionaries, Johannes Rebmann and Ludwig Krapf, in 1848. Their tales of a snow-covered peak near the equator, however, were not initially believed.

Extract ID: 860

See also

Source Unknown

The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro

The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro the legendary burial place of King Solomon, were two German missionaries, Johannes Rebmann and Ludwig Krapf, in 1848. Their tales of a snow-covered peak near the equator, however, were not initially believed.

Extract ID: 860

See also

CD Groliers Encyclopedia

The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro

The first Europeans to discover Kilimanjaro, the legendary burial place of King Solomon, were two German missionaries, Johannes Rebmann and Ludwig Krapf, in 1848. Their tales of a snow-covered peak near the equator, however, were not initially believed. Later two other Germans were the first to reach (1889) the Kibo summit.

Extract ID: 393

See also

Fosbrooke, H.A. The Early Exploration of Kilimanjaro: A Bibliographical Note
Page Number: 06
Extract Date: 1848

The Church Missionary Intelligencer

The news of the sighting of snow capped mountains near the equator burst on the Western world when Rebmann published an account of his first journey to Chaggaland in 1848 in The Church Missionary Intelligencer, Vol. I, No. I, May 1849. This stirred up a heated argument in which numerous learned gentlemen argued that it was impossible for snow clad mountains to exist in the tropics.

For examples of the arguments and counter-arguments used see a letter in the Athenaeum dated 19th May 1849 and many further letters and articles in that Journal and the The Church Missionary Intelligencer. One of the most ardent opponents of Rebmann was one Cooley who in 1852 published his book Inner Africa laid Open. For a summary of the arguments and also somewhat abreviated accounts of Rebmann's three journeys to Chaggaland see Dr. Krapf's Travels, Researches and Missionary Labours (1860).

Extract ID: 4549

See also

Dundas, Charles Kilimanjaro and its People
Page Number: 11
Extract Date: 10 Nov 1848

This morning we discerned the Mountains of Jagga

ON November 10th, 1848, the German Missionary Rebmann wrote in his diary: "This morning we discerned the Mountains of Jagga more distinctly than ever; and about ten o'clock I fancied I saw a dazzlingly white cloud. My Guide called the white which I saw merely 'Beredi,' cold; it was perfectly clear to me, however, that it could be nothing else but 'snow'".

That anyone who had once seen the great glittering dome of Kilimanjaro could doubt it to be ice capped is out of the question, yet even when Rebrnann had traversed the mountain flanks his accounts of the snow-covered summit were described by one writer (Cooley) as " a most delightful mental recognition, only not supported by the evidence of his senses." This sneer appeared in a publication of 1852 most inappropriately entitled " Inner Africa Laid Open," since it knew nothing of one of the most conspicuous marvels of Inner Africa. Perhaps the author of that work should be pardoned for doubting the existence of so remarkable a mountain which yet was unknown until Rebrnann saw it. In these days when one may have the closest view of the great mountain from a railway, it seems indeed difficult to conceive that it was unheard of seventy-three years ago.

Extract ID: 3134

See also

Amin, Mohamed; Willetts, Duncan and Marshall, Peter Journey Through Tanzania
Page Number: 168-9

Sighting of Kilimanjaro.

It was 13 years before Rebman’s sighting [of Kilimanjaro in 1848] was confirmed by the German Officer Baron Karl Klaus von der Decken and the young British geologist Richard Thornton. Von de Decken climbed to about 14,000 feet and experienced a fall of snow. Thornton made many observations of the mountain and estimated accurately that it stood about 20,000 feet above sea level. Six years later the missionary Charles New managed to reach the snowline. Then in 1884 the naturalist Henry Hamilton Johnston made an intensive study of the flora and fauna.

Extract ID: 655

external link

See also

Claytor, Tom Bushpilot
Extract Author: Tom Claytor
Page Number: 18a
Extract Date: 1996 July 03

the border between Tanzania and Kenya

When Kaiser Wilhelm said to Queen Victoria that it was unfair that she had two mountains, she gave him one. If you look at the border between Tanzania and Kenya on a map, you will see how the line was redrawn to give Kilimanjaro to the German King. The missionary John Rebmann first saw the snows of Kilimanjaro on the 11th of May 1848. He said it was called the 'mountain of the caravans' by the Arab slave traders who used the mountain as a landmark while crossing the interior. The local Wachagga people call it Kibo (snow) and in Swahili, mwalima is mountain and ngara means to shine.

Extract ID: 3645

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xviii
Extract Date: 1848 May 11

Rebmann first sights Mount Kilimanjaro.

Johannes Rebmann, a European missionary, first sights Mount Kilimanjaro.

Extract ID: 1230

See also

Fosbrooke, H.A. The Early Exploration of Kilimanjaro: A Bibliographical Note
Page Number: 04
Extract Date: 1849

Looking for stones

As far as North Eastern Tanganyika is concerned, I myself came across a tradition In the Southern Pare Mountains that long ago white men came up from the coast, and camped at the foot of the mountains. They were "Looking for stones", doubtless prospecting for gold, and did not harm or come into conflict with the local population.

Over a century ago Rebmann (1849) the first man to make the existence of Kilimanjaro known in Europe, recorded "Some tradition of a Portuguese establishment in Jagga (Chagga) as having taken place about two centuries ago (i.e. circa 1650) is, as my guide informed me, still found with the Madjame (Machame) tribe". A map published in the same Journal (1849) shows a hill lying between the Pare Mountains and the Ruvu River bearing the legend "Hereabouts is a mountain on which the ruins of a castle and a broken piece of cannon are said to be seen" .

Extract ID: 4547

See also

Fosbrooke, Henry Arusha Integrated Regional Development Plan
Page Number: 117
Extract Date: 1856

The Slug Map

Paper IX: Early Maps of East Africa

This is a comprehensive endeavour by the missionaries Krapf and Erhardt to depict large areas of East and Central Africa including the Great Lakes. From the information at their disposal it appeared that one huge lake lay at the centre of the area. Their representation of this lake, depicted in Map 2A, suggested a slug, hence the popular name of the map.

The map itself has never been published but is in the possession of the Royal Geographical Society, London. The Map Curator of the R.G.S. has kindly provided a photo copy of the relevant portion of the map, exhibited as map 2B, stating that this is the best that can be made.

To bring out the salient points, the Survey and Mapping Division of the Ministry of Lands, Housing and Urban Development undertook an enlargement (times 2) which accurately reproduces the features which are of particular concern to this story, but omits many others.

Ngorongoro and the Serengeti do not yet appear, but the whole of the country from north of Lake Natron to south of the Pare Mountains is assigned to ILMASAI.

Oldonyo Lengai is shown as "Snow Mt. (rain Mt.) Gods Mt.". "Kignea" and "Kilimanjaro" are also shown as snow mountains. The reason for including Lengai in this category is because mineral deposits which appear on the upper slopes of the volcano show upwith such brilliant whiteness as to give to the early observers the impression of snow.

It is of interest to note that the trade in soda from Lake Natron (though not named as such) was in existance at the time: "From where the Magad [soda] is bought."

Another point of interest depicted in the extreme north east corner of the map is a reference to a stream flowing into "the Ukerewa" I.e. Lake Victoria. It is noted that "This water tho' sweet is said to turn peoples teeth yellow". This is probably the first recorded reference to the fact, particularly noticeable around Mount Meru, that a high flourine [sic] content in the drinking water, does cause a brown stain to the teeth which cannot be removed.

The Map was presented to the Royal Geographical Society on 10th November 1855 by the missionary Erhardt. Its official title is as follows:

"Sketch of a Map from 1 & deg;N. to 15 & deg;S. Latitude and from 23 & deg; to 43 & deg;E. Longitude delineating the probably position and extent of the Sea of Uniamesi as being the continuation of the Lake Niasa and exhibiting the numerous heathen-tribes situated to the East and West of that great Inland-sea together with the Caravan routes leading to it and into the interior in general. In true accordance with the information received from natives - Representatives of various inland tribes - and Mahomidan inland traders. By the Revd. Messrs. Erhardt and F. Rebmann Missionaries of the Church Miss. Society in East Africa Kisaludini March 14 1855."

A paper published in German - J. Erhardt's Memoire Zur Erlauterung Der Von Ihm Und J. Rebmann, Zusammengestellten Karte Von Ost- Und Central-Afrika , (S.Tafel 1.) - gives further details of the country concerned. It is the first attempt at assessing the geographic position of the main geographic features of eastern Africa - Kilimanjaro, Lengai, Lake Victoria etc. by the length and direction of each days march undertaken by the trading caravans.

Extract ID: 3215

See also

Marsh, Zoe (editor) East Africa, through Contemporary Records
Extract Author: Erhardt and Rebmann
Page Number: 69a
Extract Date: June 1856

The 'Slug' Map

Note that Fosbrook attributes the map to Krapf and Erhardt.

The map is dated Juin 1856 at the top right.

Extract ID: 4051

See also

Marsh, Zoe (editor) East Africa, through Contemporary Records
Extract Author: Erhardt and Rebmann
Page Number: 69b
Extract Date: June 1856

The 'Slug' Map - Legend

Lac Equitorial

D'Uniamesi ou D'Ukewere

dans l'Afrique Centrale et Orientale

apres l'esquisse des R.R.Erhardt et Rebmann

et la carte du Dr A Petermann

par

V.A.Multe-Brun

1856

Extract ID: 4054

See also

Marsh, Zoe (editor) East Africa, through Contemporary Records
Extract Author: Erhardt and Rebmann
Page Number: 69c
Extract Date: June 1856

The 'Slug' Map - detail

Extract ID: 4052

See also

Marsh, Zoe (editor) East Africa, through Contemporary Records
Extract Author: Erhardt and Rebmann
Page Number: 69d
Extract Date: June 1856

The 'Slug' Map - more detail

Ol Donyo Lengai and Kilimanjaro are both described as Mountains covered by snow.

Mount Meru is also shown.

A region is named Arusa.

Engaruka is marked.

To the west of Ol Donyo Lengai is shown a mountain called Bikiro.

Extract ID: 4053
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