Tanganyika

Name ID 602

external link

See also

World History at KMLA
Page Number: 02a

Tanganyika 1815-1886

Tanganyika as a geographical and political entity did not take shape before the period of High Imperialism; it's name only came into use after GERMAN EAST AFRICA was transferred to Britain as a mandate by the League of Nations in 1920. What is referred to here therefore is the history of the region that was to become Tanganyika.

In 1698 and again in 1725 the Omanis had ousted the Portuguese from the trading ports on East Africa's coast, most notably from Kilwa and Zanzibar. During the 18th century, Zanzibar had emerged as the dominant port of the region. Trade in general had prospered, a chain of coastal trading towns, among them TANGA and BAGAMOYO, had emerged. Bagamoyo means 'throw your heart away'; it was a port from where slaves were shipped.

In 1841, Sultan SAYYID SAID moved his capital from Muscat to Zanzibar; with him came many Arabs who invigorated the economy. In 1856, the Sultanate of Zanzibar was separated from the Sultanate of Oman; to Zanzibar belonged the island of Pemba as well as the coastal lands, including Kilwa. Arab traders established caravan routes into the interior, facilitating trades; the camel provided transportation. Slaves were among the most profitable trading goods.

The port of Zanzibar was visited by Dutch, English and French ships. The British East India Company had a representative on Zanzibar, who acted as an advisor to the sultan. In 1873 a British fleet forced Sultan Barghash to declare slave trade ended. An illegal slave trade continued.

In 1848 the German missionary JOHANNES REBMANN 'discovered' Mount Kilimanjaro; in 1858 BURTON and SPEKE 'discovered' Lake Tanganyika.

In 1877 the first of a series of Belgian expeditions arrived on Zanzibar. In the course of these expeditions, in 1879 a station was founded in KAREMA on the eastern bank of Lake Tanganyika, soon to be followed by the station of MPALA on the opposite western bank. Both stations were founded in the name of the COMITE D'ETUDES DU HAUT CONGO, a predecessor organization of the Congo Free State. The fact that this station had been established and supplied from Zanzibar and Bagamoyo lead to the inclusion of East Africa into the territory of the CONVENTIONAL BASIN OF THE CONGO at the BERLIN CONFERENCE of 1885.

At the conference table in Berlin, contrary to widespread perception, Africa was not partitioned; rather rules were established amongst the colonial powers and prospective colonial powers as how to proceed in the establishment of colonies and protectorates. While the Belgian interest soon concentrated on the Congo River, the British and Germans focussed on Eastern Africa and in 1886 partitioned continental East Africa amongst themselves; the Sultanate of Zanzibar, now reduced to the islands of Zanzibar and Pemba, remained independent, for the moment.

The Congo Free State was eventually to give up it's claim on Karema (it's oldest station in Central Africa) and on any territory to the east of Lake Tanganyika, to Germany.

Extract ID: 3480

See also

Nettelbeck, David A history of Arusha School, Tanzania
Page Number: 17a

CHAPTER II THE PROVISION OF EDUCATION FOR EUROPEANS

In Chapter 1, we have sketched briefly the entire history of formal education in Tanganyika from the first German settlement in 1887 to Independence in 1961. We have seen that much of the educational provision was made on the initiative of voluntary agencies with the Government coming in later to support financially, guide and finally control. This pattern is particularly true for European education where the Government seemed to be prevaricating and hesitant, knowing something should be done but uncertain as to what and how much.

Extract ID: 4923

See also

Campbell, Alexander Empire in Africa
Extract Date: 1913 and before

The natives of Tanganyika began to grow coffee before 1913

The natives of Tanganyika began to grow Coffee before 1913 - during the period of German rule.

Extract ID: 1373

See also

World History at KMLA
Page Number: 06a

Tanganyika a British Mandate 1918-1939

The period of British rule began with the occupation of the island of MAFIA by the Royal Navy in 1914. In 1916, the colony was occupied; German troops, commanded by able PAUL VON LETTOW-VORBECK continued to resist until the end of the war. In 1920, the League of Nations, granted the mandate to administrate the former German colony of German East Africa, except Ruanda and Burundi, to Britain.

The colony was renamed Tanganyika TERRITORY (1920). In 1921 the Belgians transferred the Kigoma district, which they had administrated since the occupation, to British administration., Great Britain and Belgium signed an agreement regarding the border between Tanganyika and Ruanda-Urundi in 1924.

British policy was to rule indirectly, i.e. through African leaders. In 1926, a LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL was established, which was to advise the governor. In 1928 the railway line Tabora-Mwanga was opened to traffic, the line from Moshi to Arusha in 1929.

In 1919 the population was estimated at 3,500,000. In 1931 a census established the population of Tanganyika at 5,022,640 natives, in addition 32,398 Asiatics and 8,228 Europeans.

Under British rule, efforts were undertaken to fight the Tsetse fly (Charles Swynnerton, since 1919), to fight Malaria and Bilharziasis; more hospitals were built.

In 1926, the Colonial administration provided subsidies to schools run by missionaries, and at the same moment established her authority to exercise supervision and to establish guidelines. Yet in 1935, the education budget for entire Tanganyika amounted to merely (US) $ 240,000.

Extract ID: 3484

See also

World History at KMLA
Page Number: 06c
Extract Date: 1916-1939

Tanganyika a British Mandate 1918-1939: Tanganyika's Governors

1916-1920 Horace Archer Bratt, administrator

1920-1924 Horace Archer Bratt

1925-1931 Donald Charles Cameron

1931-1934 George Stewart Symes

1934-1938 Harold Alfred MacMichael

1938-1941 Mark Aitchinson Young

Extract ID: 3522

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 07b
Extract Date: 1919

British Mandate

The Treaty of Versailles in June 1919 gave Britain a mandate to administer all of former German East Africa under the supervision of the League of Nations, with the exception of Ruanda and Urundi, which were placed under Belgian administration. The country was renamed Tanganyika Territory, and was governed by the Colonial Office with General Sir H.A Byatt as first Administrator General.

In 1922 Slavery was finally abolished.

Extract ID: 4030

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxi
Extract Date: 1919 May 7

Versailles peace talks

The Supreme Council at the Versailles peace talks allocates all of GEA to the UK under mandate. Belgium, which still occupies Ruanda-Urundi, protests the decision.

Extract ID: 1236

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxi
Extract Date: 1919 May 31

UK cedes the Ruannda-Urundi to Belgium

To prevent a rift between the two nations, the UK cedes the Ruannda-Urundi portion of GEA to Belgium

Extract ID: 1237

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxi
Extract Date: 1919 June 28

Germany renounces all claims

Germany renounces all claims to GEA.

Extract ID: 1238

See also

Nchi Yeti / Our Land.
Extract Date: 1919 June 28

After the Peace Treaty with Germany signed at Versailles on . . .

After the Peace Treaty with Germany signed at Versailles on June 28, 1919, Great Britain undertook, under the mandate of the League of Nations, to administer the former German colony. ...

Extract ID: 989

See also

Nchi Yeti / Our Land.

Tanganyika Order in Council

In 1920, by the Tanganyika Order in Council, 1920, the Office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Territory was constituted. The administration of the Territory continued to be carried out under the terms of the mandate until its transfer to the Trusteeship System under the Charter of the United Nations by the Trusteeship Agreement of December 13, 1946.

Extract ID: 990

See also

Nettelbeck, David A history of Arusha School, Tanzania
Page Number: 09a
Extract Date: 1920

b. THE WAR YEARS:

A skilful and remarkably successful guerrilla campaign waged by the German Commander Von Lettow Vorbeck kept the war in Tanganyika going for the entire length of the First World tear. A scorched earth policy and the requisition of buildings meant a complete collapse of the Government's education system, though some mission schools managed to retain a semblance of instruction. Thus by 1920, the Education Department consisted of 1 officer and 2 clerks with a budget equal to 1% of the country's revenue, in fact less than the amount appropriated for the maintenance of Government House.

Extract ID: 4916

See also

Samler Brown , A and Gordon Brown, G (Editors) South and East African Year Book and Guide for 1920, 26th issue
Page Number: 520-521E a

History of East Africa : The War with Germany in East Africa

At the outbreak of war the German authorities May have regarded the position of their premier Colony with considerable equanimity although it must inevitably be cut off from outside communication; for it had been organized against any attack that could be made without those extensive preparations for which, according to the German war programme, the essential factor of time would be lacking. Indeed for the first year of hostilities the Germans were strong enough to carry the war into their neighbours' territories and repeatedly attacked the railway and other points in British East Africa.

The forces at the disposal of the German Command May never be accurately known. Lieutenant-General Smuts at one time estimated them at 2,000 Germans and 16,000 Askaris, with 60 guns and 80 machine guns, but this should prove to be below the mark. The white adult male population in 1913 numbered over 3,500 (exclusive of garrison), a large proportion of these would be available for military duties. The native population of over 7,000,000, comprising practically all the warlike races of Central Africa, formed a reservoir of man-power from which a force might be drawn limited only by the supply of officers and equipment. There is no reason to doubt that the Germans made the best of this material during the long interval of nearly eighteen months which separated the outbreak of war from the invasion in force of their territory (+).

In his final despatch of May, 1919, General van Deventer places the German forces, at the commencement of 1916, at 2,700 whites and 12,000 blacks. Lord Cranford, in his foreword to Captain Angus Buchanan's book on the war, writes - "At his strongest von Lettow probably mustered 25,000 to 30,000 rifles, all fighting troops", with 70 machine guns and 40 guns. After eighteen months of continuous fighting General van Deventer estimated the enemy's forces at 8,000 to 9,000 men (*).

Another point bearing on the war and duly emphasized by General Smuts in his lecture before the Royal Geographic Society (Jan., 1918), was the extraordinary strength of the German frontier. The coast line offered few suitable points for landing and was backed by an unhealthy swamp belt. On the west the line of lakes and mountains proved so impenetrable that the Belgian forces from the Congo had, in the first instance, to be moved through Uganda. On the south the Rovuma River was only fordable on its upper reaches. And the northern frontier was the most difficult of all. Only one practicable pass about five miles wide offered between the Pare Mountains and Kilimanjaro, and here the German forces, amid swamps and forests, had been digging themselves in for eighteen months.

(+) The Hon. H. Burton, speaking in London, Aug., 1918, said : "Nothing struck our commanders in the East African field so much as the thorough, methodical and determined training of the German native levies previous to the war".

(*) The force which evacuated the Colony in Dec., 1917, was estimated at the time at 320 white and 2,500 black troops; 1,618 Germans were killed or captured in the last six months of 1917, 155 whites and 1,168 Askaris surrendered at the close of hostilities.

Extract ID: 3489

external link

See also

Samler Brown , A and Gordon Brown, G (Editors) South and East African Year Book and Guide for 1920, 26th issue
Page Number: 521E-521F

History of East Africa

The mandate to administer the former German Colony has been conferred to Great Britain under the terms of the Supreme Council of the League of Nations. Great Britain has transferred the Provinces of Ruanda and Urundi, in the N.W., to Belgium, with the concurrence of the Supreme Council. These Provinces contain three-sevenths of the population and more than half the cattle of the Colony.

Naval Defence. The boundaries of the East Indies Station, on the African coast, were enlarged in 1919, and include Zanzibar and what was the littoral of "German" East Africa.

Dar-es-Salaam remains, at least for the present, the seat of Government of the conquered Colony. The first Administrator is Sir Horace Archer Byatt, C.M.G. The native troops have gone back quietly to their villages and the few Germans that remain are reported as settling down under the new Administration.

Minor Transfers of Territory in East Africa, incident at the close of the War (p. 521F)

Ruanda and Urundi (British East Africa). - The British Government transferred the Administration of these Provinces in the N.W. of late German East Africa to the Belgian Government, with the sanction of the Supreme Council, in August 1919.

Kianga. - Situated at the mouth of the Rovuma River (late German East Africa), with an area of 400 square miles; the claim to this territory by Portugal was conceded by the Supreme Council on Sept. 25th 1919.

Extract ID: 3490

external link

See also

Internet Web Pages
Extract Author: Robert S. Cragg
Page Number: 1

British Commonwealth Postmarks

Attached are lists of villages and other offices where you may find a circular date stamp. Well, most are circular and almost all are dated. The lists are loosely arranged as follows:

Name as it appears in an early cancel or in the majority of cancels. Many town names, especially in Africa and Asia, have a number of spellings in English. These are ignored. But, if the town name changed significantly, the newer name is in parentheses. Names often changed because of confusing same or similar names in the same colony.

Also, independence led to de-Anglicization, especially if the town name included words such as "fort". If the town is a post office outside of the colony but administered by the colony, that is indicated.

Next is the earliest date "known" of a dated cancel or, sometimes the date of opening. If not from literature, then from my collection. Sadly, most early dates from my collection are not that early.

Then there are letter or numeral killers used alone or in conjunction with a date stamp. Sometimes several different numbers were used, perhaps in different styles. This is a huge field, only touched on here.

Lastly, the location of the village is given (or will later be given) by latitude and longitude. Sometimes this is only approximate, variables including inaccurate old maps, inaccurate new maps, moving of towns, confusion over similar town names, quirky software and my own clerical errors.

The lists are a place to get started. They are incomplete, the degree depending on what literature is available to the author. Focus is on villages with post offices around the turn of the century without attempting to include newer offices. The cut-off date for each colony varies, depending on manageability of the number of offices.

Many of the village marks are rare. Occasionally, only a single example is known. Some offices were open only a few months and have disappeared from modern maps.

TANGANYIKA

[short list, with some names from Northern Tanzania]

Arusha 1922 3s22 36e41

Babati 1935 4s13 35e45

Kondoa 1920 4s54 35e47

Loliondo 1937 2s03 35e37

Mbulu 1920 sl 3s51 35e32

Monduli 1939 3s18 36e26

Moshi 1917 3s21 37e20

Ngare Nairobi 1928

Oldeani 1934 3s21 35e33

Singida 1926 4s49 34e45

Usa River 1929 3s22 36e50

Extract ID: 4302

external link

See also

Internet Web Pages
Extract Author: Robert S. Cragg
Page Number: 2

British Commonwealth Postmarks - Tanganyika Full List

TANGANYIKA

Amani 1922 5s06 38e37

Arusha 1922 3s22 36e41

Babati 1935 4s13 35e45

Bagamoyo 1918 6s26 38e54

Biharamulo 1930 2s38 31e20

Bukene 1931 4s14 32e53

Bukoba 1917 1s20 31e49

Bwembwela 1926 sl

Dabaga 1931 8s06 35e54

Dar Es Salaam 1919 6s48 39e17

Dodoma 1919 6s11 35e45

Fela 1932 sl 2s38 33e01

Geita 1936 2s52 32e10

Gulwe 1920 sl 6s30 36e29

Handeni 1931 5s26 38e01

Ifakara 1928 8s08 36e41

Iringa 1920 7s46 35e42

Isaka 1927 3s54 32e56

Kahama 1927 3s50 32e36

Kamachuma 1929 1s35 31e37

Karema 1931 6s49 30e26

Kasanga 1931 8s28 31e09

Kasulu 1927 4s34 30e06

Kibata 1925 8s28 38e58

Kibondo 1931 3s35 30e42

Kidete 1934 sl 6s25 37e16

Kidugallo 1930 6s47 38e12

Kigoma 1921 4s52 29e38

Kigombe 1927 8s47 36e07

Kigwe 1933 sl 5s10 33e08

Kikale 1923 7s50 39e12

Kikuyu

Kilossa 1919 6s50 36e59

Kilwa 1919 8s45 39e24

Kimamba 1927 6s47 37e08

Kingolwira 1934 sl 6s47 37e46

Kintinku 1933 sl 5s53 35e14

Kinyangiri 1931 sl 4s27 34e37

Kisangiro 1934 3s42 37e34?

Kiuhuhwi 1931 sl 5s12 38e40

Kondoa 1920 4s54 35e47

Korogwe 1925 5s09 38e29

Kungutas 1937 8s27 33e14

Lembeni 1933 sl 3s47 37e37

Lindi 1921 10s00 39e43

Liwale 1922 9s46 37e56

Loliondo 1937 2s03 35e37

Lugari 10s52 34e52

Lupa River (Chunya) 1934 8s32 33e25

Lupembe 1920 sl 9s15 35e15

Mabuki 1928 2s59 33e11

Mafia 1915 7s48 39e49

Mahenge 1919 8s41 36e43

Makuyuni 1934 sl 3s33 36e06

Malangali 1923 8s34 34e51

Malinyi 1919 8s56 36e08

Manda 1922 7s58 32e26

Mantare 1935 2s43 33e13

Manyoni 1923 5s45 34e50

Mara River 1938 1s32 33e47?

Masasi 1926 10s43 38e48

Maswa 1927 2s40 33e58

Maurui 1931 sl 5s07 38e23

Mbamba Bay 1935 11s17 34e46

Mbeya 1928 8s53 33e26

Mbosi 1930

Mbulu 1920 sl 3s51 35e32

Mdandu 1927 9s09 34e42

Mikese 1930 6s46 37e54

Mikindani 1922 10s17 40e07

Mingoyo 1933 10s06 39e38

Mkalama 1926 4s07 34e38

Mkata 1932 5s47 38e17

Mkumbara 1934

Mnyussi 1931 sl 5s12 38e34

Mohoro 1924 8s08 39e10

Mombo 1929 4s53 38e17

Monduli 1939 3s18 36e26

Morogoro 1919 6s49 37e40

Moshi 1917 3s21 37e20

Mpapua 1920 6s21 36e29

Mtama 1932 10s18 39e22

Mtotohovu 1929

Mufindi 1930 8s35 35e17

Muhesa 1926 5s10 38e47

Musoma 1920 1s30 33e48

Mwakete 1934 9s21 34e13

Mwanza 1917 2s31 32e54

Mwaya 1919 8s55 36e50

Nachingwea 10s22 38e45

Namanyere 1923 7s31 31e03

Nansio 1934 2s08 33e03

Ndanda 1936 10s29 39e00

Newala 1932 10s56 39e18

Ngara 1935 2s28 30e39

Ngare Nairobi 1928

Ngare Nanyuki 1936 3s08 36e50

Ngerengere 1930 6s45 28e07

Ngomeni 1930 5s08 38e53

Ngudu 1933 2s58 33e20

Njombe 1930 9s20 34e46

Nzega 1924 4s13 33e11

Oldeani 1934 3s21 35e33

Pangani 1922 5s26 38e58

Pongwe 1939 5s08 38e58

Puma 1933 sl 4s59 34e43

Ruvu 1930 6s48 38e39

S H Club 1947

Sadani 1936 6s03 38e47

Sanya Juu 1939 3s10 37e03

Sao Hill 1933 8s20 35e12

Saranda 1922 5d43 34e59

Seke 1931 sl 3s20 33e31

Shinyanga 1924 3s40 33e26

Singida 1926 4s49 34e45

Sira River 1926

Soga 1931 6s49 38e52

Songea 1921 10s41 35e39

Sumbawanga 1932 7s58 31e37

Tabora 1919 5s01 32e48

Tandala 1919 9s23 34e14

Tanga 1917 5s04 39e06

Tengeni 1933 sl 5s24 38e40

Tukuyu 1918 9s15 33e39

Tunduru 1932 11s07 37e21

Usa River 1929 3s22 36e50

Utete 1927 7s5938e47

Wilhelmstal (Lushoto) 1917 4s47 38e17

Extract ID: 4780

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxi
Extract Date: 1920 January 10

Tanganyika Territory

GEA renamed Tanganyika Territory (TT)

Extract ID: 1240

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxi
Extract Date: 1921 March 21

Belgium cedes Kigoma District

Belgium cedes Kigoma District to Tanganyika Territory

Extract ID: 1239

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxi
Extract Date: 1921 July 23

Indian rupee

The Indian rupee ceases to be legal tender in TT.

Extract ID: 1241

See also

Campbell, Alexander Empire in Africa
Extract Date: 1922

Coffee planters

There were fewer than 600 native planters in 1922;

Extract ID: 1374

See also

editors East Africa
Extract Date: 1922

German East Africa

German East Africa, renamed Tanganyika, is mandated to Britain by the League of Nations.

Extract ID: 994

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxi
Extract Date: 1922 January 1

East African shilling

The Metallica Currency Ordinance establishes the East African shilling as legal tender in TT.

Extract ID: 1242

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 08a
Extract Date: 1922-1945

Administration

The British Administration took rneasures to revive African institutions by encouraging limited local rule and authorized the formation in 1922 of political clubs such as the Tanganyika Territory African Civil Service Association. In 1926 some African members were unofficially admitted into the Legislative Council and in 1929 the Association became the Tanganyika African Association which would constitute the core of the nascent nationalist movement. In 1945 the first Africans were effectively appointed to the Governor's Legislative Council.

Extract ID: 4031

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxii
Extract Date: 1922 June 16

Slavery outlawed

Colonial authorities enact the Involuntary Servitude (Abolition) Ordinance, which outlaws Slavery throughout TT.

Extract ID: 1243

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxii
Extract Date: 1923 April 1

taxes

British Authorities impose African hut and poll taxes..

Extract ID: 1244

See also

Boyes, John (ed. Mike Resnick) Company of Adventurers
Page Number: 124a

Huts in Tanganyika Territory

Extract ID: 3615

external link

See also

World History at KMLA
Page Number: 08b
Extract Date: 1939-1961

Tanganyika a British Mandate 1939-1961: Tanganyika's Governors

1938-1941 Mark Aitchinson Young

1941-1945 Wilfrid Edward Francis Jackson

1945-1949 William Dennis Battershill

1949-1958 Edward Francis Twining

1958-1961 Richard Gordon Turnbull

Extract ID: 3520

See also

Moore, Mrs Audrey Serengeti
Page Number: Inside Cover

Map of Northern Half of Tanganyika

Extract ID: 3379

See also

World History at KMLA
Page Number: 08a

Tanganyika a British Mandate 1939-1961

World War II changed the economic situation, production of tobacco, cattle and rubber saw a remarkable increase. When Japanese troops occupied Malaysia and the Dutch East Indies, the British administration took Tanganyika's ill-kept and unprofitable rubber plantations under their own management. The rubber boom ended immediately after the war.

Tanganyikans served in the war, in the KING'S AFRICAN RIFLE BATTALION and the TANGANYIKAN NAVAL VOLUNTEER FORCE. The territory received c.12,000 refugees, mostly Poles and Italians. In 1940, Canadian John Thorburn [sic] Williamson discovered DIAMONDS near Tabora in Tanganyika.

In 1946 Tanganyika was approved as a TRUST TERRITORY by the United Nations, in succession of the League of Nations, entrusted to Great Britain. In 1948, a constitutional reform resulted in African and Asian representation in the Legislative Council (established in 1926).

In 1949, Tanganyika's main export products were Sisal (over 40 % of total export value), followed by coffee. Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika had a shared currency, the EAST AFRICAN SHILLING. In 1947 an estimated 324,500 natives were under employment (out of a native population of 5,581,277 (1946)). Wages for agricultural labour began at 12s. per month, for semi-skilled to skilled labour at 20s. to 200s. per month. Asian artisans were paid 8 to 10s. per day.

In 1954, JULIUS NYERERE established the TANU (Tanganyika African National Union) which emerged as the dominant political party in the elections of 1958 and 1960. In 1961, independence was proclaimed.

In 1953 the Catholic church reorganized the administration of Tanganyika's community by elevating Daressalaam into the see of an archdiocesis, with suffragan dioceses at Bukoba, Dodoma, Iringa, Karema, Kigoma, Maswa (Shinyanga), Mbarara (Ruwenzori), Mbeya, Mbulu, Morogoro, Moshi, Mwanza, Rutabo and Tabora.

Extract ID: 3486

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxii
Extract Date: 1939 September 3

Detention

The British Authorities detain all German Nationals and place their assets under a custodian.

Extract ID: 1245

See also

Campbell, Alexander Empire in Africa
Extract Date: 1944

Coffee planters

now [1944] there are about 12,000 native planters and 200 European planters. There is a friction between the two. The Europeans have repeatedly alleged that the natives fail to keep down the pests and the weeds. A Government expert investigated this charge. He reported that in the Kilimanjaro area conditions on the native plantations were better than on the white plantations. The buyers evidently think so too, for before the war the natives were getting the same, and in some cases higher, prices than the whites.

Extract ID: 1375

See also

Campbell, Alexander Empire in Africa
Extract Date: 1944

debt charges

Tanganyika’s debt charges amount to a quarter of the total revenue. Two-thirds of the money borrowed was spent on railways. In addition to the debt charges, there are heavy fixed administration charges to be faced on account of Government and social services - costs whose burden on a large, undeveloped territory, where native health is poor and civilisation is scarcely begun, looms all the larger when foolish extravagances like Government House are remembered.

Extract ID: 1376

See also

Campbell, Alexander Empire in Africa
Extract Date: 1944

oh my DARling Clementine

The national anthem is sung to the tune of 'Clementine' - Tanganyika, Tanganyika, oh my DARling Clementine. The country is three times the size of the United Kingdom. Largest and most populous of all the British East African territories, it has 5,000,000 Africans, 23,500 Indians and 9,000 Europeans.

Extract ID: 1372

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 08b
Extract Date: 1945-1960

After World War II

After World War II, Tanganyika became a Trust Territory under the United Nations with Britain expected to conduct the country towards independence.

Self-government was now the major aim and in 1953, Julius 'Mwalimu' (The Teacher) Nyerere was elected President of the Tanganyika African Association which in 1954 was renamed the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU) with its rallying motto 'Uhuru na Umoja' (Freedom and Unity).

In 1958 TANU largely won the Legislative Council elections and Richard Turnbull, the last Governor, integrated the Party into the mainstream of political life. In 1960 TANU formed the first local Government and Nyerere was appointed as Tanganyika's first Prime Minister.

Extract ID: 4032

See also

Nchi Yeti / Our Land.

Tanganyika Order in Council

In 1920, by the Tanganyika Order in Council, 1920, the Office of Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the Territory was constituted. The administration of the Territory continued to be carried out under the terms of the mandate until its transfer to the Trusteeship System under the Charter of the United Nations by the Trusteeship Agreement of December 13, 1946.

Extract ID: 990

See also

Tanganyika Guide
Page Number: cover
Extract Date: 1948

Cover

Extract ID: 4424

See also

Nettelbeck, David A history of Arusha School, Tanzania
Page Number: 12b

g. EDUCATIONAL SEPARATISM AND THE 1950s:

Because of the Government's lack of resources and unwillingness to take a strong initiative in educational provision, and in pursuance of the G.I.A. policy, there grew up three racially distinct systems of African, Asian and European education with each of the three; subdivided into state controlled, state aided, and wholly private schools.

In the African sector for example in 1937, there were 9,500 pupils in Government schools, 19,500 in aided schools and 100,000 in private schools. These latter. were often sub-standard bush schools, catechetical centres or Koranic schools along the coast. It was not until 1955 that the Government required these kinds of schools to be registered.

In the same year, there were 985 places in Government schools for Indian children and another 3,318 in grant aided schools. The Indian community were quick to take advantage of the G.I.A. system and fulfil the requirements thus only 320 of their children were that year in private schools.

For the European community in the 1930s, the Government made direct provision in three ways. Arusha School, primarily for boarders, opened in 1934; a correspondence course was based in Dar es Salaam; and there was also a junior primary school in Dar es Salaam. The enrolment figures in 1937 show 59 children in the two latter, and 60 pupils at Arusha School.

There were in addition 704 grant aided places for European children, a significant proportion of these being in national community schools for the Dutch, German and Greek children. Another 15 places were in a private school. The above figures are taken from the enrolment statistics 1931 - 1948 in Appendix G.

There is another way of looking at these statistics and that is to see the percentage of children being- educated from each community. Listowell states that in 1933, 51% of the European children, 49% of the Asian and 2% of the African were at school.

By 1945 7.5%, of the African children attended school though few got beyond the fourth primary grade and none could attempt the entrance exam for tertiary study at Makerere in Uganda. By 1959, 40% of African children attended at least the first four years of primary education, and in 1961, 55% of the age group entered the first primary grade. The present Government of Nyerere aims at universal primary education by 1980. (The comparative cost per head of population has been referred to above and is detailed in Appendix J.)

In 1930 an Education Tax was introduced with the primary object of affording security to the Government for the repayment of loans made -to non-African communities. In 1932 the Indian and European communities were taxed for their education on a poll Tax basis and, in addition, fees were charged at their schools. Nevertheless the Government was making a far more generous per capita provision for European and Indian children than it was for African children. The table in Appendix J shows the total expenditure for each community and the per capita cost from 1931 - 1937. Also the table in Appendix K shows that in 1955/56, 33.7% of the money spent by the Government on European education was collected in fees, 15.4% came from -the European Education Tax and 49.1% from Central Revenue. In 1959. the central revenue provided for European Education an amount equivalent to 1% of the total territorial expenditure.

In 1956, £3,618,555 held by the Custodian of Enemy Property from funds collected from confiscated properties during the Second World Wart was distributed equally between the Tanganyika Higher Education Trust Fund for establishing tertiary education facilities, St Michael's and St George's School, a lavish secondary school for European children at Iringa, Indian education, and African education. This 4 way split seem superficially fair but as President Nyerere has pointed out, the allocation on a per capita basis was equivalent to shs- 720/- to each European, shs. 200/- to each Asian and shs. 2/- to each African.

A 1948 and 1949, the three existing education systems described above were formalized by two ordinances, the Non-Native Education Ordinance and the Non-Native Education Tax Ordinance. This legislation brought into being an Indian Education Authority and a European Education Authority, each composed of representatives of the communities they were to serve. They were responsible for the development and general over-sight of the systems, and for managing the education funds according to the budget approved by the Legislative Council. There was also an Advisory Committee for Other (non-native) Education, which included Goan, Mauritian, Seychellois, Anglo-Indian, and Ceylonese children.

What began in 1948 as a very minor offshoot of basic Government responsibility for the development of the country with only 8,000 Asian and 300 European children, had become by 1961 a major concern catering for 28,000 Asian and 2,500 European children.

Extract ID: 4921

See also

A Pocket Guide to Tanganyika

A Pocket Guide to Tanganyika

Extract ID: 2929

See also

Fosbrooke, Henry Ngorongoro: The Eighth Wonder
Page Number: 202
Extract Date: 1964

grant of £182,000

... the grant of £182,000 had been made to Tanganyika to enable the country to put into effect the recommendations of the Serengeti Committee. ... Where the money was to come from beyond June 1964, when the grant expired, no one knew. ... In retrospect it was fortunate that my idea of a self-accounting Authority was turned down, [because the Park could not generate enough revenues for itself - much if the benefit is indirect, e.g. to hotels and tour operators] although at the time no alternative was proposed. We just drifted along, drawing our funds from Colonial [sic] Development and Welfare: but this scheme was due to close on 30 June 1994. When the deadline drew near, the Government of Tanzania (as it had then become) manfully accepted its responsibilities and agreed to carry the costs of the Conservation Unit.

Extract ID: 710

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxiii
Extract Date: 1961 December 9

full independence

TT gains full independence from Great Britain.

Extract ID: 1246

See also

Map and Guide to Tanzania
Page Number: 08c
Extract Date: 9 December 1961

Independence

Independence from Britain was obtained without any civil disturbance on 9th December 1961, the country remaining a member of the Commonwealth.

Extract ID: 4033

See also

Nettelbeck, David A history of Arusha School, Tanzania
Page Number: 15

h. THE INTEGRATED SYSTEM 1962:

1961, the final year of the separate racial organisation of education, the expenditure was £424,965 for European, £590,993 for Indian, £41,207 for other non native and £3,620,257 for African education. It was true that special taxation and fees provided a part of the expenditure on non-African education, that those parents contributed much to the general wealth of the country, and that the separate systems were comparatively modest. It was also true however that there was a far higher expenditure per pupil in the non-native schools and there were school places for virtually all non native children, but for only 44% of African children in 1,061 and only 20% of those could proceed beyond primary standard.

In 1955, Riddy & Tait had commended the smooth running; of the multiple system but noted that there was no attempt whatever at consultation or cooperation between the systems. They recommended that “the different systems would gain if there were, at the highest level some council or committee, composed of representatives of all the communities that live in the Territory, which could discuss and advise on matters of educational interest in the Territory as a whole.” They recommended some exploration and thinking in the sphere of multi-racial education, and the formation of a professional society for all teachers. The latter recommendation was implemented in 1960 when the “Unified Teaching Service” was formed to unify salaries and conditions of service for teachers employed by various agencies.

As the movement for independence accelerated in the late 1950s, educational separatism became intolerable. In 1958, the Government announced that it had “accepted as an objective, the development of a single system of education for Tanganyika.” This was defined as follows: “Any child should be eligible for admission to any school in the territory, if his aptitude for the language of instruction is such that he should be able to maintain his place in the school; provided that:

a. in the case of primary schools, priority should be given for a period of 3 years from the date at which the Non Native Education Tax ceases to be payable, to the children of the community for whom the school was established, and

b. the style of living at boarding schools should be appropriate for the community concerned”.

It was also recommended that pending the implementation of the legislation, all schools should be encouraged to admit pupils of all races to vacancies not required by the community for which the schools were established. The legislation came into effect on lst January, 1962.

Extract ID: 4922

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxiii
Extract Date: 1962 December 9

republic

Tanganyika becomes a republic.

Extract ID: 1247

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: 21
Extract Date: 1964 January 25

Marines land at Dar es Salaam

600 British Marines landed at Dar es Salaam and quickly restored order.

Extract ID: 1251

See also

Ofcansky, Thomas P and Yeager, Rodger Historical Dictionary of Tanzania
Page Number: xxiv
Extract Date: 1964 April 26

Tanganyika and Zanzibar unite

Republic of Tanganyika and People's Republic of Zanzibar unite to form United Repubic of Tanzania and Zanzibar.

Extract ID: 1249

external link

See also

Orvis
Extract Author: Orvis
Extract Date: 2001

Tapestry Tanganyika Waistcoat

Item #:QE22C3-01-06

This fun waistcoat is a conversation starter - you’re likely to meet other African animal lovers when you wear it. Woven tapestry in a leopard pattern with a patchwork of wildlife in the style of zoological illustrations from the 1800s. Fully lined. High V-neck with full-button front. Made from a blend of poly/acrylic/rayon. Dry clean. USA.. Price: £89.00

I wonder how close this will ever get to Tanganyika

Extract ID: 3172

external link

See also

Internet Web Pages
Extract Author: Tanzania Tourist Board
Extract Date: 1964

Facts About Tanzania

The word Tanzania is derived from the two nations of Tanganyika and Zanzibar which before 1964 were separate.

Tanganyika in Kiswahili, the local dialect (Swahili) is translated to mean "sail in the wilderness"

and Zanzibar is derived from the Arabic words "Zayn Z'al Barr" which mean "fair is this land".

Extract ID: 5559

See also

nTZ Feedback
Extract Author: Graham Mercer
Page Number: 2007 09 20 a

Could Kilimanjaro itself be an abbreviation of Kilima Manjaro

Got one or two queries for you.

Have always been intrigued by the name "Kilimanjaro" and recently saw a village called "Manjaro" on the map, close to Singida.

If the village, which is close to a prominent hill, it seems, was named "Manjaro" before the mountain was called "Kilimanjaro" it might prove interesting, once we find out what "Manjaro" means or how it was derived.

Could Kilimanjaro itself be an abbreviation of Kilima Manjaro"? Or was the village I refer to named after the mountain (which is very far away fo course) and abbreviated?

Would appreciate any suggestions etc. from you or your readers - meanwhile hope all is well!

Extract ID: 5470

See also

nTZ Feedback
Extract Author: Graham Mercer
Page Number: 2007 09 20 b

Why was "Tanganyika" adopted by the British as the name of the whole country

A more general point on the subject of names. "Tanganyika" seems to have first been used of the lake, and I believe that "tanga" means sail (of a dhow) and of course "nyika" means bush, particulalry dry thornbush. Presumably the name derives from something such as "The place in the bush where sailboats are found".

But why was "Tanganyika" adopted by the British as the name of the whole country, during the mandate?

Would appreciate any suggestions etc. from you or your readers - meanwhile hope all is well!

Extract ID: 5472
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